Dancing is her favorite habit. I prefer eating ice-cream. Form Simple, Active Form Simple, Passive Mary prefers being taught by a stern teacher. The actress stayed at her hotel to avoid being seen by her fans.
Form Perfect, Active having made I regret having made the remark abort her hairdo. having seen I regret having seen the film. Form Perfect, Passive having been seen The film was banned after having been seen by thousands of people. having been transferred I regret having been transferred to another class this year.
The gerund can be used: 1. As the subject of a verb 2. As the object of a verb 3. As the object of a preposition 4. After a possessive or the possessive form of nouns of nouns 5. After certain verbs 6. Special combination 7. Formed by adding not before it.
As the subject of a verb When a gerund is used as the subject of a verb, it is placed at the beginning of a sentence. Reading romantic novels is my favourite pastime. Smoking is hazardous to health. Climbing mountains can be dangerous if we are not careful. A babys crying woke me up last. Walking from here to the local supermarket takes only five minutes.
The gerund is also used in the following Notes: The gerund is also used in the following constructions constructions: 1) It is no use/It is no good e.g It is no use trying to make her change her mind. It is no good interfering with other peoples business. 2) There is no e.g There is no joking about such matters. There is no denying the fact that the Clean Hong Kong Campaign is a success.
3) Its worth / Its not worth E.g. Is the film worth seeing ? It is not worth going to see that film. 4) Its a waste of money / time E.g. Its a waste of time writing the report. Its a waste of money buying the doll. Its a waste of money buying the doll.
5 ) Have difficulty doing E.g. Mary has difficulty doing her Maths homework. finding Im sorry Im late. I had difficulty finding the place. 6 ) Go-ing shopping E.g. Did you go shopping yesterday ? swimming How often do you go swimming in the summer ?
As the object of a verb When a gerund is used as the object of a verb in a sentence, it is placed after the verb. She tried to avoid getting involved in their quarrels. He enjoys acting. Mary disliked listening to pop music. They hate eating fatty foods. We all enjoy reading a good book.
The following words are followed Note: The following words are followed by gerunds, not infinitives: by gerunds, not infinitives: Acknowledge, admit, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, celebrate, defer, delay, deny, detest, dislike, like, consider, doubt, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, finish, forgive, remember,imagine, include, keep, mention, mind, miss, propose, pardon, postpone, practice, prevent, recall, recollect, report, resent, resist, risk, save, stand, suggest, tolerate, understand, be worth, be busy
As a object of a preposition A gerund can also be used as the object of a preposition. In this case, the gerund follows the preposition. My brother is thinking of changing his job. She is fed up with teaching English. I look forward to seeing you in the summer. I was interested in painting. He persisted in carrying out the plan.
There are two exceptions---- Notes1: There are two exceptions---- except and but. except and but. e.g There was nothing left for us to do except complain to the Consumer Council. He did nothing but (to) watch television yesterday. In the following phrases, to is a Notes2: In the following phrases, to is a preposition. preposition. used to, averse to, closed to, object to, devoted to, when it comes to, opposed to, susceptible to, look forward to, accustomed to, confessed to, key to
After a possessive adjective or the possessive form of nouns Possessive adjective : my, our, your, his, her, its, their Possessive form of nouns : Johns my brothers Example : Would you mind my using your book? Would you mind Joans using your dictionary?
After certain verbs Avoid enjoy miss recall appreciate finish oppose mind resist dislike prevent waste Examples : 1. I dislike having lunch with John. 2. Would you mind answering my question ? 3. When will you finish talking ?
7. F ormed by adding not before it. Example: I apologize for not being able to see you off at the airport tomorrow. He resented not having been invited to the party.
COMPARISON BETWEEN GERUNDS AND INFINITIVE (1) Some verbs followed by GERUNDS or INFINITIVES without there being any change in meaning. Such verbs include start, begin,cease, continue and cant bear. 2) Those which can be followed by either without any difference in meaning. ( 2) Those which can be followed by either without any difference in meaning. Eg. They continued to - work after lunch. - working - working
COMPARISON BETWEEN GERUNDS AND INFINITIVE STOP When the teacher came, the children stopped talking at once. children stopped talking at once. The driver stopped his cars to ask The driver stopped his cars to ask where the farm was. where the farm was. REMEMBER I cant find my key. I remember putting it in my coat, pocket,in putting it in my coat, pocket,in this morning. this morning. I hope you will remember to post I hope you will remember to post my letter on your way to school. my letter on your way to school.
COMPARISON BETWEEN GERUNDS AND INFINITIVE FORGET He has forgotten asking me the same question yesterday. question yesterday. He has asked me to lend him my He has asked me to lend him my dictionary because he has forgotten to dictionary because he has forgotten to bring it again. mountain. bring it again. mountain. TRY After failing twice, they tried climbing from the other side of the maintain. from the other side of the maintain. This year they will try to climb a high mountain. This year they will try to climb a high mountain.
COMPARISON BETWEEN GERUNDS AND INFINITIVE REGRET I regret telling her the secret. Now, everybody knows that I m going to everybody knows that I m going to resign. resign. I regret to tell you that your I regret to tell you that your application has not been successful. application has not been successful. I ll let you know when there is I ll let you know when there is another vacancy. another vacancy. GO ON They went on talking until late into GO ON They went on talking until late into the night. the night. They went on to talk about other They went on to talk about other things. things.
COMPARISON BETWEEN GERUNDS AND INFINITIVE Eg. Allow, advise, acknowledge, encourage, permit,can be followed by an Object + infinitive. She advised us to start early. Compare: she advised starting early. Eg. deserve, need, want, and require Eg. deserve, need, want, and require Can be followed by either an active gerund or a passive infinitive without change of meaning. This needs- painting - to be painted. - to be painted.