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PowerPoint Presentation prepared by Terri Petkau, Mohawk College
CHAPTER FOURTEEN Deviance and Crime Julian Tanner
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd 14-3 INTRODUCTION Will examine: Types of crime and deviance Approaches to understanding crime and deviance Crime data sources, including official crime statistics, self-report surveys, and observation Correlates of crime Theories of crime and deviance Gender and crime Youth, crime, and deviance Responses to crime and deviance*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd 14-4 CONCEPTIONS OF CRIME AND DEVIANCE All known human societies have norms (i.e., generally accepted ways of doings things) about appropriate behaviour Deviance involves breaking a norm Crime involves breaking a law*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd 14-5 NORMS AND ENFORCEMENT Norms are enforced in many ways, both formally and informally At the formal level, norms are enforced with laws regulated by a criminal justice system that includes police, courts, prisons, etc. At the informal level, norms may be enforced with shaming, communal pressure, etc.*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd 14-6 NORM VIOLATIONS Hagan distinguishes between diverse kinds of rule breaking behaviour by suggesting norm violations be differentiated according to different measures of seriousness, which include the following: 1.How harmful the act in question is deemed to be 2.How much agreement there is that the behaviour in question is wrong 3.Severity of the sanction (or punishment) imposed on that behaviour…*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd 14-7 NORM VIOLATIONS: TYPES OF DEVIANCE AND CRIME Hagan employs his conception of seriousness to identify four different kinds of deviance as follows: 1.Consensus crime: Acts deemed very harmful and wrong, and for which the harshest criminal sanctions are reserved Examples: Homicide, attempted homicide, violent assault with a weapon, violent sexual assault, armed robbery, kidnapping, & theft…*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd 14-8 NORM VIOLATIONS: TYPES OF DEVIANCE AND CRIME 2.Conflict crime: Where members of the community disagree over whether behaviours in question are harmful, wrong, or deserving of severe criminal sanction Examples: Euthanasia, gambling, prostitution, drug use, and public drunkenness (often referred to as morality offences)…*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd 14-9 NORM VIOLATIONS: TYPES OF DEVIANCE AND CRIME 3.Social deviation: Norm-violating behaviour that is not illegal but nevertheless may be subject to social stigma through condemnation, ostracization, and medicalization Examples: People who are mentally ill, who are homosexual, or who are alcohol- or drug-dependent…*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd NORM VIOLATIONS: TYPES OF DEVIANCE AND CRIME 4.Social diversion: Minority heterosexual & homosexual activities as well as forms of symbolic or expressive deviance involving adolescents Examples: Particular clothing, hairstyles, musical choices, etc. Generally speaking, the more serious the form of deviance, the less likely it is to occur Conversely, other deviant acts can occur so routinely some question whether they characterize deviance…*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd TYPES OF DEVIANCE AND CRIME
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd NORM VIOLATIONS Hagans typology is subject to change though given the relativity of deviance: Acts, behaviours, and conditions that constitute various categories can vary over time Examples: Impaired driving – not originally regarded as a serious offence - was inconsistently enforced and rarely punished with a prison sentence Marijuana use, once regarded as a serious offence, is now considered by some to warrant decriminalization*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd THE RELATIVITY OF DEVIANCE
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd LABELLING THEORY Labelling theory recognizes relativity of crime and deviance, and argues the following: Crime and deviance may be universal, but there are no universal forms of crime and deviance What counts as deviant or criminal behaviour varies by time and place including… Killing (acceptable in time of war or in line of duty) Opiate-use in Canada (was once legal) Incest (are significant variations across cultures in what constitutes incest)…*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd LABELLING THEORY Labelling theory recognizes relativity & argues the following: (contd) Publicly recognizing somebody as criminal or deviant is important cause of criminal or deviant behaviour Application of label of criminal or deviant often linked to lower social class (e.g., the lower the status of the user, the more likely the drug will be criminalized)*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONISM Differs from labelling theory only in its broad concern with all kinds of social problems rather than solely crime and deviance Both theories argue crime & deviance become problematic because some people - usually the most powerful - define them as such Both theories focus on activities & claims that result in new crimes being defined Are more likely to ask the question, Why do we care more about youth crime than corporate crime? than What causes youth crime & corporate crime?*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd OBJECTIVIST ACCOUNTS OF CRIME AND DEVIANCE Objectivist accounts of crime and deviance focus on the behaviour itself Researchers working in this tradition are likely to pose the following kinds of questions: Are rates of crime and deviance increasing? What kinds of people become bank robbers, prostitutes, or murderers? What factors predict rampage school shootings, corporate crime, youth gang activity, etc.? Do people who break one kind of rule also break other kinds of rules?*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd UNDERSTANDING CRIME AND DEVIANCE Can combine both objectivist & constructivist approaches by asking different but complimentary questions about the phenomenon Full understanding of crime & deviance requires both the norm- violation and labelling/constructionist approaches*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd CRIME IN THE NEWS The media does not report all criminal incidents that it can report Violent crime is reported more regularly than property or white-collar crime (.i.e., crime conducted by high-status individuals in the course of their occupation or profession) News organizations do not just report facts but rather they shape how readers, viewers, & listeners feel and think about crime & deviance Example: Canadians overestimate crime & recidivism (repeat offending) rates & underestimate severity of criminal sanctions for crimes*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd OFFICIAL STATISTICS Most accounts of crime & deviance are made persuasive by use of data collected by the police, the courts, & other governmental agencies The more serious the norm violation, the more comprehensive the data collection Virtually every important theory of deviant behaviour (especially criminal behaviour) relies on information about offences & offenders collected by or on behalf of the government…*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd OFFICIAL STATISTICS Since 1962, a system of uniform crime reports (UCR) has provided the basic count of criminal infractions in Canada UCR system is designed to produce consistent, comparable, nationwide crime statistics For crime to become known to the police, one of two things must happen: Either members of the public experience or observe a criminal incident and pass that information on to the police – or The police themselves detect the incident…*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd OFFICIAL STATISTICS UCR underestimates the actual amount of crime occurring in any jurisdiction given inconsistent reporting to police by the public The number (deemed large) of criminal incidents that remain unknown to the police often is referred to as the dark figure of crime 2007: In Canada, were 2.3 million crimes known to the police However, overall crime rate was lower than at any time since with violent crime at its lowest level in nearly two decades*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd CRIME RATES IN CANADA, 1962 TO 2007
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd REGIONAL VARIATIONS IN CRIME RATES Generally speaking, provinces and cities in western part of Canada have higher crime rates than those in the east Contributing factors: The Wests frontier mentality that favours individualism, independence, and risk-taking More migrants (anonymity loosens social controls) Younger population (crime associated with youth) Proportionately higher Aboriginal population (group with crime rates higher than non-Aboriginal population)*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd HOMICIDE RATES In 2007, were 594 homicides in Canada homicides per Canadians Rate has been decreasing since 1975 Males are more likely than females to be both victims and perpetrators of homicide Rates are higher in the West than in the East Black people are five times more likely than white people to become homicide victims, and also are more likely to be perpetrators*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd HOMICIDE RATES IN SELECTED COUNTRIES, 2005–2007
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd HOMICIDES Sociologists of homicide are interested in the relationship between murderers and their victims Statistics demonstrate the following: Most victims know their killer Acquaintances kill about one-third of homicide victims, family members another third In comparison to men, women are at greater risk from the violent attentions of former spouses and are 4 times more likely to be victims of intimate partner homicide Child victims of homicide are rare, and children are killed primarily by women*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd HOMICIDES: CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES Although Canadas homicide rate is similar to that of many European nations, it is much lower than the U.S. rate (i.e., roughly 1/3) While non-urban homicide rates are fairly similar in Canada and the U.S., urban differences are enormous While some claim violent media consumption in the U.S. is contributing factor, Canadians watch similar programming*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd HOMICIDES IN CANADA, 1961–2007
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd OTHER DATA SOURCES: SELF-REPORT SURVEYS Self-report studies used mainly to conduct research on deviance among young people, particularly those in high school Statistics Canada also conducts surveys of adult victimization periodically Concerns of self-report studies: Cannot ensure truthfulness of accounts Self-disclosure much higher than in police records Those charged by police and prosecuted differ from hidden delinquents*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd OTHER DATA SOURCES: DIRECT OBSERVATION Researchers use observational studies to collect information about crime and deviance by watching it happen, either as outside observers or as participant observers Many gang researchers have engaged in observational studies Concern of observational studies: Observing people can sometimes change their behaviour*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd CORRELATES OF CRIME A correlate is a phenomenon that is associated with another phenomenon Factors associated with criminal and deviant activity are correlates of crime Important correlates of crime: 1.Age (i.e., people in teens & early 20s) 2.Gender (i.e., males) Both age & gender are universal correlates of crime…*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd CORRELATES OF CRIME Important correlates of crime: (contd) 3.Lower social and economic standing (is disputed though because is not reflected in self-reports) But street crime (i.e., robbery, burglary, and the like) involves mainly people from low-status backgrounds White-collar or business crime is more likely to involve people from more privileged backgrounds…*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd CORRELATES OF CRIME Important correlates of crime: (contd) 4.Race Aboriginals and blacks are overrepresented in Canadas prison population Overrepresentation of Aboriginal people explained by both (i) racial bias in treatment of Aboriginal offenders, and (ii) greater criminal activity by Aboriginal people Overrepresentation of Black people explained by racial profiling (i.e., targeting by police officers of members of particular racial or ethnic groups)*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd THEORIES OF CRIME AND DEVIANCE 1.Strain theory (proposed by Robert Merton) Holds that crime & deviance are result of societal pressures to break rules because of incompatible demands of cultural goals and social structural opportunities Lack of fit between cultural goals & social structural opportunities results in anomie Those who experience anomie respond by: Withdrawing from conventional society Finding deviant (including criminal) means of achieving goals*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd THEORIES OF CRIME AND DEVIANCE Variant of strain theory Learning perspective and differential association (Edwin Sutherland) Holds that if people experience more non-deviant than deviant associations as they grow up, they are likely to not engage in crime and deviance later in life More association with deviant than non-deviant lifestyles teaches people skills of the criminal trade as well as rationalizations for it Learning can continue later in life as well through time spent in prison with other inmates*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd THEORIES OF CRIME AND DEVIANCE 2.Control theory (Travis Hirschi) Holds that a set of ties bind young people to the conventional world, and when those ties are weak, deviance & crime occur No special motivation is required because we all have natural inclination for rule breaking that is only kept in check because of our (i) attachments to family and friends; (ii) commitments to conventional ambitions and activities in school and work; (iii) prosocial values & beliefs; and (iv) conventional activities at school and work*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd THEORIES OF CRIME AND DEVIANCE Variant of control theory General Theory of Crime Argues that all deviance has a common cause in low self-control Personality characteristics of individuals with low self-control include impulsivity, a taste for risk, an action orientation, and short-term thinking Low self-control presumably originates in early socialization because of lack of parental involvement or attention to deviant behaviour*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd THEORIES OF CRIME AND DEVIANCE Routine activities theory Argues that much criminal behaviour is not dependent on complex causation Rather, presence of a suitable target & absence of capable guardians suffice Crime rates vary not just because of number of individuals in the population willing and prepared to commit crime, but also because of presence or absence of capable guardians, and because of the daily routines that people follow*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd GENDER AND CRIME Major difference between males and females is largely one of volume: Males are (i) more inclined than females to crime and deviance (especially violent crime); (ii) start their deviant activities earlier; and (iii) end them later However, female crime increasingly recognized as growing problem: Women and girls are becoming more violent as well as more involved in gang activity…*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd GENDER AND CRIME Some analysts suggest female wrongdoing can be best explained by same concepts and theories used to explain male wrongdoing But then generic theories would need to explain lower level of deviance and criminality among females than males Sociologists influenced by feminist ideas are more likely to argue for gender-specific theories of crime and deviance Is supported by research on role of depression in female rather than male delinquency*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd YOUTH, CRIME, AND DEVIANCE Young people are at heart of most peoples concerns about crime & deviance Concern, fed by media coverage, gives rise to moral panics, which are extreme reactions to deviance and crime that suggest behaviour constitutes threat to core values and well-being of society; e.g., school shootings and youth gangs Most moral panics involve young people for two main reasons: (i) Are considered vulnerable to corrupting influences; and (ii) they represent the future (which becomes cause for concern)*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd RESPONDING TO CRIME AND DEVIANCE 1.Incarceration: Prison is chief means - albeit ineffective - by which we seek to control crime Deterrence theory holds that getting tough on crime will lead to its eradication or at least reduce its probability Suggests law-violating behaviour will be low when severity, certainty, and speed of punishment are high But is challenged by certainty principle, which holds that potential offenders are more often deterred by thought of certain but moderate punishment than by guarantee of severe punishment for act they think they can get away with*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd RATE OF INCARCERATION IN SELECTED NATIONS
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd RESPONDING TO CRIME AND DEVIANCE 2.Intervention: Interventionist policies assume that we can most effectively tackle crime by weakening motivations and minimizing opportunities for lawbreaking Interventions include recreational programs for neighbourhood youth, counselling sessions, and assignment of youth workers to neighbourhood street gangs Problems: Expensive and limited proper evaluation of effectiveness*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd RESPONDING TO CRIME AND DEVIANCE: PREVENTING CRIME Public policy debates about crime rarely discuss non-legal solutions despite our knowledge of risk factors associated with serious and repetitive criminality among youth Is not surprising given criminal justice policies are driven by political ideology, not criminological research (is particularly true for juvenile justice policy)…*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd RESPONDING TO CRIME AND DEVIANCE: PREVENTING CRIME Much if not most of controversy surrounding criminal justice policy in Canada centers on young people Over past century, young people in trouble with the law have fallen under the following provisions: 1.Juvenile Delinquents Act of 1908 (based on welfare model of juvenile justice) 2.Young Offenders Act of 1984 (welfare model but also drew on due process & crime control models) 3.Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) of 2003 (emphasized getting tough on serious, repeat young offenders while adopting less punitive strategies for the far more numerous minor offenders)*
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd RATES OF YOUTH FORMALLY CHARGED WITH A CRIME SINCE INCEPTION OF THE YOUTH CRIMINAL JUSTICE ACT (YCJA)
Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd RESPONDING TO CRIME AND DEVIANCE: PREVENTING CRIME Under the YCJA, minor offenders receive warnings and community-based diversionary programs Most recent youth crime statistics suggest that, as intended, occasional & non-serious young offenders are being diverted in manner intended While number of youths charged by the police has declined significantly, offences most likely to result in a charge under the YCJA are same offences that brought criminal charges under its predecessor**
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