Презентация на тему: " ASSESSMENT THE LEVEL OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SECURITY AFFECTED BY THE ATMOSPHERE POLLUTION M. Askarova, Al. Medeu, Akh. Medeu." — Транскрипт:
ASSESSMENT THE LEVEL OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SECURITY AFFECTED BY THE ATMOSPHERE POLLUTION M. Askarova, Al. Medeu, Akh. Medeu
Environmental security is a basis for the sustainable development. Air pollution is one of the main environmental threats for human health and life.
Atmospheric pollution According to the World Health Organization (WHO), life expectancy is reducing and mortality is increasing. Air pollution is the cause of respiratory diseases.
According to the WHO datas: In 2012 mortality was 7 million people around the globe, taking into account pollution both in the atmosphere and indoor. Pollution of atmospheric air caused 3,7 million deaths in urban and rural areas around the globe. Air pollution is on agenda in Kazakhstan as well.
Purpose of the research : to propose a methodology for calculating the index of the environmental health safety for every district, city or region of Kazakhstan affected by atmospheric air pollution.
The main air pollutants in Kazakhstan carbon monoxide or carbon oxide (СО); sulfur oxides ; nitrogen dioxide ; formaldehyde ; phenol ; suspended matters.
Sources of pollution Emissions of enterprises : power engineering; ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy; chemical industry; oil and gas industry; construction industry. Motor transport
Air pollution in Kazakhstan Emissions of pollutants from 1990 to 2013
Emissions of air pollutants from stationary sources in Kazakhstan
ALMATY is a Kazakhstan's major metropolis Total area km2. Almaty is a financial, economic, trade, cultural and scientific center of the republic. It consists of 8 administrative districts; The population is about million
The features of climatic conditions in Almaty: the city is located in a submontane depression, is characterized by the absence of wind, fogs and ground inversions, smog; in January 2010, Almaty took 25th place in the list of most polluted cities in the world (according to the NYC Partnership Consulting).
Table 2. The dynamics of air pollution in Almaty (by the multiplicity of excess of the MPC) Contaminants Suspended matters 1,3 n 1.1 n 0,9 Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) 2,8 2,1 2,5 3,4 1,9 Carbon oxide(СО) n n n n 0,5 Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) n n n n 0,7 Nitrogen oxide (NO) n n n n 0,2 Formaldehyde 4,7 3,2 3,4 3,2 3,7 Phenol n n n n 0,4 n – normal
Fig. 1. The correlation between air quality and respiratory diseases morbidity of population in Kazakhstan Air Pollution Index The number of respiratory diseases morbidity per people of the population
Table 3. Respiratory diseases ( per 100 thous. of people) Population Almaty34653,431023,232112,529076,8 Republic of Kazakhstan 23573, , ,322561,6
Methods of research The use of probabilistic risk assessment methods based on the analytical method and the method of analogies. The indicators for public health are the morbidity indices and the average life expectancy.
The indicator of the environmental security for human health n – number of districts; I MRY i – morbidity index of the reporting year of the i-th district; I MPY i – morbidity index of the year previous to the reporting year; L i – the average life expectancy in the i-th district; L max – the maximum recorded average life expectancy (in Japan); Нi, H – the population size of the i-th district and the total population size.
Table 4. Security levels for public health index levels of safety Imore than 0,9High II0,9 – 0,8Acceptable III0,8 – 0,7Average IV0,7 – 0,6Critical Vless than 0,6Catastrophic
The index of public health safety for Almaty (for 2012) I MRY i– morbidity index of the reporting year ,5/ (for 2012); I MPY i – morbidity index of the year previous to the reporting year ,2/ (for 2011); Li – the average life expectancy in Almaty – 71,61; Lmax – the maximum recorded average life expectancy (in Japan) – 82,6; H – the population size in Almaty – ; Нi – total population size in Almaty region
Calculation of the index of public health safety for Almaty SPH
The index of public health safety for Almaty According to Table 4, the level of public health safety in Almaty is a critical. Therefore it is necessary to take measures to improve air quality in the city and create a program to reduce environmental risks.
Recommendations to reduce the impact of air pollution on public health normative and legal regulation; priority development of public transport the restriction of private vehicles; transition to the alternative kinds of fuel: gas, electricity, bio-fuel.
Reduction of threats to public health and increasing the level of the environmental safety is one of the priority trends for sustainable development; Genetic predisposition, lifestyle, physical training, etc. depend on the person himself; Clean environment, availability of good food, qualitative health care should be guaranteed by the state. Conclusions: