Презентация на тему: " Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan Kazakh Ablai khan University of International Relations & World Languages FACULTY of TRANSLATION." — Транскрипт:
Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan Kazakh Ablai khan University of International Relations & World Languages FACULTY of TRANSLATION and PHILOLOGY CHAIR OF ENGLISH PHILOLOGY Done by:Zhumasheva Aigerim,group 302 Checked by:Rozieva D. Almaty,2014
STUDENTS INDEPENDENT WORK 1 The Aim, Objectives of Theoretical Phonetics The Aim, Objectives of Theoretical Phonetics Classification of English, Kazakh and Russian languages. Classification of English, Kazakh and Russian languages.
What does phonetics study? Write what phonetics studies. The term phonetics is derived from the Greek language. Phonetics is often defined as a branch of linguistics dealing with the phonetic structure of a Ianguage.It means that phonetics studies (1) the sounds, their classification and distribution; (2) the syllabic structure of words, i.e. syllable formation and syllable division (3) the accentual structure of words, its nature, place and degree; (4) the intonational structure of sentences What is phonetics?
Write in the gaps those sciences, which phonetics is connected with. As а branch of linguistics phonetics occupies a peculiar position. Though it is an independent science and develops according to its own laws, it is connected with a number of other linguistic and non-linguistic sciences. On the one hand, phonetics is connected with lexicology of the language On the other hand, it is connected with grammarand other sciences. What sciences is phonetics connected with? All tasks
What aspects of language do the linguistic sciences study? All tasks * Phonetics - the study of speech sounds in their physical aspects *Phonology- the study functional aspect of speech sounds *Morphology- is the study of the internal structure of words *Syntax - the study of the formation of sentences *Semantics - the study of meaning *Pragmatics- is the study of the aspects of meaning and language use The linguistic sciences study the language from different viewpoints. Lexicology treats of the vocabulary of a language, of its origin, meaning and word-building. Grammar studies the structure of a language and the rules governing the combination of words into sentences. Stylistics means the study of style. The history of the language traces its historical development. Phonetics is connected with them because lexical, grammatical and other phenomena are expressed phonetically. They cannot exist outside phonetics.
Explain them and compare your answer Phonetics is connected with stylistics through intonation which serves to express different emotions and to distinguish between different attitudes on the part of the speaker or reader. Phonetics is connected with physics because speech like any other sounds in nature are acoustic phenomena and may be studied from the point of view of their physical properties. The articulation of sounds and their perception are connected with anatomy and psychology. What other sciences is phonetics connected with? All tasks
Human speech sounds are of a complex nature and they may be viewed from four points articulatory, auditory, acoustic and functional.These are the aspects of speech sounds.They all function simultaneously and cannot be separated from one another.But each of them can be singled out only for purposes of linguistic analysis. What are the aspects of speech sounds? Point out the aspects. All tasks
Thus, phonetics, as a science, has developed a number of its own branches: physiological, phonetics, which treats of the articulation and perception of sounds, acoustic phonetics, which studies the physical nature of speech sounds, and phonology, which is concerned with the study of functions of different phonetic phenomena. Each of these branches of phonetics has its own methods of investigation and its own terminology. What branches of phonetics do you know? Record your answer Point out the branches instead of gaps. All tasks
From the point of view of its articulation every speech sound is a complex unity of definite movements and positions of the speech organs. It is physiological phonetics (sometimes also called articulatory phonetics) which deals with the study, description and classification of speech sоunds. It is the oldest and the most developed branch of phonetics. What branch of phonetics studies the articulatory aspect of speech sounds? Write the missing branch. All tasks
Physiological phonetics also studies the auditory aspect of speech sounds. There is an especially close connection between the articulatory and auditory aspects, because when man pronounces speech sounds they are perceived not only by the listener but by the speaker himself too. What branch of phonetics studies the auditory aspect of speech sounds ? Write the branch in the gap. All tasks
The physical properties of a sound are: (1) fundamental frequency (2 ) intensity and (3) time There is a close connection between acoustic and auditory aspects of speech sounds. Care should be taken not to confuse the terminology which is used in them. The fundamental frequency of a sound, as an acoustic property, is perceived by us as its pitch or tone. The intensity of a sound corresponds to its loudness. The time or temporal component is perceived as the duration or length of a speech sound. What are the physical properties of a sound ? Write the physical properties in the gap. All tasks
What do you know about historical and comparative phonetics ? All tasks Blok-scheme Closely connected with historical phonetics is comparative phonetics whose aims are to study correlation between the phonetics system of two or more languages, especially kindred ones and find out the correspondences between the speech sounds kindred languages. Historical phonetics is connected with general history and the history of the people whose language is studied..The study of intonation is impossible without a good knowledge of logic.
Phonetics may be practical and theoretical. Practical phonetics has wide sphere of application Theoretical phonetics has wide sphere of application Practical phonetics is connected with teaching foreign language and is applied in method of speech correction, teaching mute transliteration, radio, TV. The latter term is used to designate all the practical applications of phonetics, which are very manifold. All the branches of phonetics are absolutely indispensables to the teaching of the prononciation of foreign languages, especially to adults learners. What are the spheres of application of practical phonetics? Write your point of view and compare it with correct answer. All tasks
May the articulation basis of different languages differ? How are final consonants articulated in Russian and Kazakh? What is articulation basis? All tasks Module 1 1)The English have a tendency to hold the tip of the tongue in neutral position at the level of the alveoli (or teeth- ridge), whereas the Russians and the Kazakhs keep it much lower, at tooth level. That is why there are about 50% of all the consonants in RP which are articulated with the tip of the tongue against the alveoli, as in /t, d, n, l, s/ etc. they are alveolar, palato-alveolar and post-alveolar in accordance with the place of obstruction. The tip of the tongue in the articulation of Russian and Kazakh forelingual consonants occupies dental position. 2)The English and the Kazakhs have a general habit to hold the bulk of the tongue in neutral position a little further back, lower and flatter than the Russians. This may be observed in the art-n of the consonants /h, ŋ/ in British RP and /h, ң, қ, ғ/ in Kazakh. 3)The English have a specific way of articulating final consonants. Voiced consonants in final position are always weak in English (even partially devoiced). They are called lenis. Voiceless consonants in final position, on the contrary, are strong. They are called fortis. In Russian voiced consonants are impossible in final positions (except sonorant), and voiceless cons-s in final position are always weak. In Kazakh sonorant and /з/ are possible in final position, e. g. көз. 4)There is a specific way of articulating voiceless plosive cons-s in English. When they are followed by a stressed vowel they are aspirated, as in teacher, paper. In Kazakh and Russian they are non-aspirated. 5)There is a tendency to lengthen the English word-ending sonorant before a pause, especially when they are precede by a short vowel. As in Tom, doll, long. The similar Russian and Kazakh sonorants are short in the same position.
Write them in the gaps. The obstruction is complete when the articulating organs are in close contact. The air passage is completely blocked. They are called occlusive. The obstruction is incomplete when the organs of speech are not blocked completely but only constricted, or narrowed leaving a passage for the air to go through. They are called constrictive. Beginning with a complete and ending with an incomplete one is the type of obstruction when affricates are produced. What are complete and incomplete obstructions? What sounds are produced in these cases? All tasks Module 1
How are plosive consonants in the following words in English, Russian and Kazakh pronounced before stressed vowels: teacher, tact, tart. All tasks Module 1 The seven Russian vowel sounds are all similar to English vowel sounds, with the exception of ы. It should be noted that the Russian vowel sounds are pronounced more open than in English. Most Russian consonants are pronounced slightly more forward than in English. For example, the sounds [t] and [d] are dental and [s] and [z] are created by touching the tongue to the top edge of the lower teeth. One Russian consonant is not formed in English, щ, and is pronounced [t] as in fresh cheese. There are two groupings of consonant sounds in Russian, often known as hard and soft. The hard sound is the normal formation, while the soft sound is pronounced as a palatalized velar, with a raised tongue position. English approximation examples are talk and costume; body and beauty. The most difficult consonant sounds for Russians are /θ/, /ð/, /ŋ/ and /w/. Also, the sounds /t/, /d/, /l/ and /n/ are formed differently by Russians, giving them a strong foreign sound. Russians usually devoice /b/, /d/ and /g/ in final voiced positions, causing mispronunciation. When /p/, /k/ and /t/ are at the beginning of words, Russians often mispronounce these sounds. The sound /h/ is replaced by a rougher sound like ch in loch. They often soften many consonants before front vowels and replace the dark /ł/ with the clear /l/.Consonant clusters that are especially challenging are /s/ + /θ/, /ð / + /z/ and /θ/ + /s/. Other problems include pronouncing /t/, /d/, /s/, /z/ followed by /y/; exploding the first plosive in a combination of two plosive consonants; inserting the sound /ә/ in the combination /tl/, /dl/, /tn/ and /dw/; and pronouncing the initial clusters /tw/, /tr/, /pr/, /dr/ and /br/.
What is the difference in the position of the bulk of the tongue in the production of vowels and in their length in English, Russian and Kazakh? All tasks Module 1 In the production of English vowels the bulk of the tongue is more often at the back of the mouth; in the production of Russian and Kazakh vowels the tongue is mostly in the front part of the mouth. Besides, the tongue may occupy more positions when articulating English vowels than in Russian or Kazakh vowel production Some vowels in English are pronounced with a fixed resonator (the tongue and the lips do not change their position), others are articulated with a modified resonator (the tongue and the lips move from one position to another). 1)The positions and movements of the lips are very peculiar. On the one hand, when an English is silent, his lips occupy the so-called flat-type position, they are more or less tense and the corners are raised as in a smile. A Russian and a Kazakh keep the lips rather lax with the corners of the lips lowered. Spreading of the lips for front vowels is rather typical of English. In Russian and Kazakh the lip position for unrounded vowels is neutral. On the other hand, in the production of the Russian vowels /o, у/ and the Kazakh /o, e, у, ү, ұ/ the lips are considerably protruded. In English such protrusion does not take place, as in /o, o:, u, u:/. 2)In the production of English vowels the bulk of the tongue is more often at the back of the mouth; in the production of Russian and Kazakh vowels the tongue is mostly in the front part of the mouth. Besides, the tongue may occupy more positions when articulating English vowels than in Russian or Kazakh vowel production. 3)English and Kazakh vowels are more tense than Russian. This is especially felt in unstressed syllables. In English and Kazakh an unstressed vowel does not always differ greatly from a stressed one. In Russian it is always short, lax and reduced. 4)There are in English short and long vowels which are different both in quality and quantity. There are no such phonemic oppositions in the Russian and Kazakh languages.
What speech organs are responsible for the production of vowels? Give 4 principles of vowel classification and classify the sounds [e, з:] All tasks Module 1 Speech sounds are produced by passing breath through the oral cavity or additionally through the nasal cavity and modulating the air flow by moving some speech organ (vocal folds, the tongue or the lips called active articulators) against some other moving or non-moving speech organ (teeth, alveolar ridge, hard palate or velum called passive articulators). A sound articulated by air passing unobstructed through the vocal folds and the oral/nasal cavity is called a vowel. According to them there are 4 principles of vowel classification: -position of lip(rounded/unrounded) -position of tongue (horizontal - front, central, back; vertical-close, mid-open, open) -degree of tenseness/character of the end of the vowel (tense, lax, checked, free) -lenght(long and short); Hence, sounds [ з:] are unrounded, central, mid-open; Sound [e] is unrounded, front.
Give 4 principles of consonant classification and classify the sounds [t, m, dз, w]. What speech organs are responsible for the production of consonants. All tasks Module 1 4 principles of consonants classification: - work of vocal cords (voiceless/voiced) - place of articulation (labial, lingual, pharyngal) - manner of the production of noise (occlusive, constrictive, occlusive-constrictive) -position of the soft palate (oral/nasal). Sound: [t] is voiceless, lingual, occlusive, oral; [m] - voiced, bilabial, occlusive, nasal; [dз] - voiced, forelingual, occlusive-constrictive, oral; [w] - voiced, labial, constrictive, oral
Write down consonant phonemes in English which have no counterparts in Russian&Kazakh. All tasks Module 1 More should be spent on those sounds that differ in English and the two local languages. A first priority would be those sounda that are difficult for both Russians and Kazakhs. These sounds include (Nilsen,1971): /p/vs./b/ //vs.// /w/vs.// /w/vs./hw/ /v/vs./z/ //vs./d/ /p/vs./f/
Write down vowel phonemes in English which have no counterparts in Russian&Kazakh. All tasks Module 1 /iy/ vs./ I/ /a/ vs. />/ /e/ vs. // // vs. /a/ />/ vs. /a/