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Презентация была опубликована год назад пользователемТатьяна Григорьева

1 Alan Turing Enigma Chris Jager

2 Contents Introduction Introduction Childhood & Youth Childhood & Youth The Turing Machine The Turing Machine Second World War Second World War Turing Test Turing Test Turings Death Turings Death References References Questions Questions

3 Introduction Paper not finished (yet) Paper not finished (yet) A lot of information about the works of Turing A lot of information about the works of Turing Less information about the person itself Less information about the person itself

4 Childhood & Youth (1) Father, Julius Mathison Turing, Indian Civil Service Father, Julius Mathison Turing, Indian Civil Service Mother, Ethel Sarah Stoney, daughter of chief engineer of the Madras Railways Mother, Ethel Sarah Stoney, daughter of chief engineer of the Madras Railways Brother, John Turing, London solicitor Brother, John Turing, London solicitor Alan Turing, born at 23 rd of june, 1912 Alan Turing, born at 23 rd of june, 1912

5 Childhood & Youth (2) Father went to India Father went to India Grown up in different kind of families Grown up in different kind of families First Science book resulted in experiments First Science book resulted in experiments If he is to be solely a Scientific Specialist, he is wasting his time at a Public SchoolIf he is to be solely a Scientific Specialist, he is wasting his time at a Public School

6 Turing Machine (1) Christopher Morcoms death Christopher Morcoms death 1931 Kings College 1931 Kings College Could there exist, at least in principle, a definite method or process by which it could be decided whether any given mathematical assertion was provableCould there exist, at least in principle, a definite method or process by which it could be decided whether any given mathematical assertion was provable

7 Turing Machine (2) Kurt Gödel : Kurt Gödel : Any consistent system cannot be used to prove its own consistencyAny consistent system cannot be used to prove its own consistency In any consistent formalization of mathematics that is sufficiently strong to define the concept of natural numbers, one can construct a statement that can be neither proved nor disproved within that systemIn any consistent formalization of mathematics that is sufficiently strong to define the concept of natural numbers, one can construct a statement that can be neither proved nor disproved within that systemconsistentnatural numbersconsistentnatural numbers

8 Turing Machine (3) 1: A tape which is divided into cells, one next to the other. 1: A tape which is divided into cells, one next to the other. 2: A head that can read and write symbols on the tape and move left and right. 2: A head that can read and write symbols on the tape and move left and right. 3: A state register that stores the state of the Turing machine 3: A state register that stores the state of the Turing machine 4: An action table (or transition function) 4: An action table (or transition function)

9 Turing Machine (4) Universal Turing Machine Universal Turing Machine Programs Programs Paper in 1936: no method could decide whether an assertion is provable, On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem at Princeton University Paper in 1936: no method could decide whether an assertion is provable, On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem at Princeton UniversityEntscheidungsproblem Lambda-calculus of Church Lambda-calculus of Church Church-Turing thesis: Church-Turing thesis:

10 Turing Machine (5) Church-Turing thesis: Any computer program in any of the conventional programming languages can be translated into a Turing machine, and any Turing machine can be translated into most programming languages, so the thesis is equivalent to saying that the conventional programming languages are sufficient to express any algorithm Church-Turing thesis: Any computer program in any of the conventional programming languages can be translated into a Turing machine, and any Turing machine can be translated into most programming languages, so the thesis is equivalent to saying that the conventional programming languages are sufficient to express any algorithm

11 Turing Machine (6) Mechanical Turing Machine Mechanical Turing Machine

12 Second World War (1) 1918 Arthur Scherbius built the Enigma 1918 Arthur Scherbius built the Enigma Before that, all coding systems were lingual based Before that, all coding systems were lingual based Advantage Enigma: Enigma machine useless when stolen, cypher produced was very difficult Advantage Enigma: Enigma machine useless when stolen, cypher produced was very difficult Polish were good at cracking codes Polish were good at cracking codes

13 Second World War (2)

14 Second World War (3) Polish enable to crack the code Polish enable to crack the code Bought a commercial Enigma Bought a commercial Enigma Called for help: mathematicians Called for help: mathematicians The French bought keys, couldnt do anything with it The French bought keys, couldnt do anything with it Poland foresaw its invasion by Germany: gave all knowledge to England and France, destroyed it afterwards (1939) Poland foresaw its invasion by Germany: gave all knowledge to England and France, destroyed it afterwards (1939)

15 Second World War (4) Enigma machine exists out of: Enigma machine exists out of: PlugboardPlugboard 3/ 4/ 5 rotors3/ 4/ 5 rotors mirror rotormirror rotor

16 Second World War (5) 1939 Turing was asked to help to crack the Enigma 1939 Turing was asked to help to crack the Enigma Built with a team the Colussus, the first programmable computer Built with a team the Colussus, the first programmable computer Based on: Based on: his own 1936 concept of the universal machinehis own 1936 concept of the universal machine the potential speed and reliability of electronic technologythe potential speed and reliability of electronic technology the inefficiency in designing different machines for different logical processesthe inefficiency in designing different machines for different logical processes Cyphercode could be decrypted from 1943 Cyphercode could be decrypted from 1943 All computers were destroyed, ordered by Churchill All computers were destroyed, ordered by Churchill

17 Second World War (6)

18 Second World War (7)

19 Second World War (8)

20 Turing Test (1) Because of the construction of the Colussus Turing thought it could be possible to construct a computer with the mind of a human being Because of the construction of the Colussus Turing thought it could be possible to construct a computer with the mind of a human being Wasnt focused anymore on what a TM could NOT do, but could do Wasnt focused anymore on what a TM could NOT do, but could do Turing was convinced that if a computer could do all mathematical operations, it could also do anything a person can do, a still highly controversial opinionTuring was convinced that if a computer could do all mathematical operations, it could also do anything a person can do, a still highly controversial opinion

21 Turing Test (2) Manchester University Manchester University Neurology & physiology Neurology & physiology Neville Johnson Neville Johnson Turing liked running very much: he even ran the Marathon Turing liked running very much: he even ran the Marathon andrews.ac.uk/history/Miscellaneous /Turing/Running.html andrews.ac.uk/history/Miscellaneous /Turing/Running.htmlhttp://www-history.mcs.st- andrews.ac.uk/history/Miscellaneous /Turing/Running.htmlhttp://www-history.mcs.st- andrews.ac.uk/history/Miscellaneous /Turing/Running.html

22 Turing Test (3) 1950 Computing Machinery and Intelligence 1950 Computing Machinery and Intelligence Turing Test Turing Test 2000 a computer could pass 2000 a computer could pass Round 1990 no computer came near breaking through the test, and still there isnt any computer who can Round 1990 no computer came near breaking through the test, and still there isnt any computer who can

23 Turing Test (4) Focused more on biology Focused more on biology Used computers for his equations Used computers for his equations First one who used computers for that purpose First one who used computers for that purpose

24 Turings Death Arrested for being homosexual Arrested for being homosexual Accepted a year being treated with oestrogen Accepted a year being treated with oestrogen Because of Cold War he was excluded from main projects Because of Cold War he was excluded from main projects He wasnt accepted anymore He wasnt accepted anymore Committed suicide by eating a cyanide poisoned apple, 8th of June 1954 Committed suicide by eating a cyanide poisoned apple, 8th of June 1954

25 References Turing/ Turing/ Turing/ Turing/ tml tml tml tml andrews.ac.uk/history/Miscellaneous /Turing/Running.html andrews.ac.uk/history/Miscellaneous /Turing/Running.html andrews.ac.uk/history/Miscellaneous /Turing/Running.html andrews.ac.uk/history/Miscellaneous /Turing/Running.html

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