ENGLISH LEXICOGRAPHY Lexicography is the science of dictionary-compiling. The word "lexicography" derives from the Greek (lexikographos), from (lexicon), - презентация
Презентация была опубликована
2 месяца назад
Презентация на тему: " ENGLISH LEXICOGRAPHY Lexicography is the science of dictionary-compiling. The word "lexicography" derives from the Greek (lexikographos), from (lexicon)," — Транскрипт:
ENGLISH LEXICOGRAPHY Lexicography is the science of dictionary-compiling. The word "lexicography" derives from the Greek (lexikographos), from (lexicon), neut. (from (lexis) - "speech", "word", and (grapho) in the meaning – to scratch, to inscribe, to write.Greek Lexicon is a term used in linguistics to indicate the archive of lexemes. Lexemes are abstract, minimal units in a language that link related forms of a word together. For example, the words fly, flight, flew, flying, and so on, are all morphologic variations of the lexeme fly. Fly is the lexeme because it is the base from which these word variations arise.
Lexicography has a common object of study with Lexicology both describe the vocabulary of a language. Lexicology aims at systematization revealing characteristic features of words, Lexicology concentrates more on general properties and features that can be viewed as systematic analysis. The task of Lexicography is the semantic, formal, and functional description of all individual words and phrases. The essential difference between the two lies in the degree of systematization and completeness each of them is able to achieve.
Practical lexicography Practical lexicography is the art of compiling, writing and editing dictionaries. Practical lexicographic work involves several activities, and the compilation of dictionaries requires careful consideration some of the following aspects:dictionaries defining the communicative and cognitive functions of the dictionary; selecting and organizing the components of the dictionary; selecting words and affixes for systematization as entries, collocations, phrases and examples; collocations
choosing the appropriate structures for presenting the data in the dictionary (i.e. frame structure, distribution structure, macro- structure, micro-structure; organizing definitions and specifying pronunciations of words; selecting equivalents in bi- and multi-lingual dictionaries; translating words, collocations, phrases and examples in bi- and multilingual dictionaries; designing the best way in which users can access the data in printed and electronic dictionaries scientific discipline.
Theoretical lexicography or Metalexicography is the scientific discipline of analyzing and describing the semantic, syntagmatic and semanticsyntagmatic paradigmaticparadigmatic relationships within the lexicon of a language, developing theories of dictionary components and structures linking the data in dictionaries.lexiconlanguage Metalexicography can be subdivided into three groups of research: User research. Dictionary criticism. Systematic dictionary research.
User research formulates theories and methods for examining dictionary use and makes observations concerning general models of improving the use dictionaries, regards the needs of users in specific types of situation, and how users may best access the data incorporated in printed and electronic dictionaries. Dictionary criticism is concerned with dictionary reviews as well as with general models for assessment for existing dictionaries.
The term «dictionary» is used to denote a book listing words of a language with their meaning and often with data regarding pronunciation, usage and origin. There are also dictionaries that concentrate their attention upon only one of these aspects: pronouncing (phonetic) dictionaries (by Daniel Jones) and etymological dictionaries.
The main problems in Lexicography The most important problems of lexicography are connected with: the selection of lexical units for inclusion; the arrangement of the selected lexical units; the setting of the entry; the selection and arrangement of word- meanings; the definition of meanings; the illustrative material.
Selection of lexical units for inclusion. The choice of lexical units for inclusion is the first problem the lexicographer faces. It is necessary to decide: what types of lexical units will be chosen for the inclusion; the number of these items; what to select and what to leave out in the dictionary; which form of the language, spoken or \ written or both, the dictionary is to reflect; whether the dictionary ' should contain obsolete units, technical terms, dialectisms, colloquial- isms, and some others.
Systematic dictionaries research is the formulation of novel or improved theories, with aims to develop new principles and the design that can improve the quality of future dictionaries. Lexicography can be grouped into: General lexicography focuses on the design, compilation, use and evaluation of general dictionaries, i.e. dictionaries that provide a description of the language in general use. (LGP dictionary). Specialized lexicography focuses on the design, compilation, use and evaluation of specialized dictionaries (LSP dictionary).
A BRIEF HISTORY OF LEXICOGRAPHY The history of dictionary-making for the English language goes as far back as the Old English period where its first traces are found in the form of glosses of religious books with interlinear translation from Latin. The historical roots of British lexicography go back to 7 th -8 th centuries when Latin was a means of international communication in Europe and the most important texts, first and foremost biblical ones, were written in this language.
Regular bilingual dictionaries began to appear in the 15 th century. These dictionaries were Anglo-Latin, Anglo-German, Anglo-French. The first English dictionary was written by Robert Cawdreys.Table Alphabetical of 1604, although it only included 3,000 words. In 1721 an English scientist and writer Nathaniel Bailey published the 1 st etymological dictionary which explained the origin of English words. It was called Universal Etymological English Dictionary.
In 1755 an English scientist Samuel Johnson compiled a famous explanatory dictionary which was called A Dictionary of the English language. Johnsons Dictionary was the first attempt at a truly principled lexicography. It portrayed the complexity of the lexicon and of English usage more accurately than ever before. The dictionary influenced normalization of the English vocabulary but at the same time it helped to preserve the English spelling in its conservative form.
In 1884 James A. H. Murray published the first volume of his new dictionary. The aim was to produce a 4-volume work in a period of 10 years; but after 5 years, Murray and his colleagues had managed to complete only the section A-ANT; it was 352 pages. In 1928 Additional editors were appointed and the last volume was published, the dictionary was called NED (New English Dictionary). It contained 12 volumes, comprising 15,487 pages and covering 414,825 lexical items.
In 1933 the dictionary was republished under the title «The Oxford English Dictionary» because the work on this dictionary was conducted at Oxford. The dictionary contained 13 volumes. The first monolingual dictionary of English for foreign learners was compiled by M. West and J.G. Endicott in 1935 (New Method English Dictionary. London).
In 1942 in Japan A.S Hornby, E.V. Gatenby and H. Wakefield published the Idiomatic and Syntactic English Dictionary which was later retitled Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English (OALD) and became the most authoritative reference book for foreign learners of English all over the world.
American lexicography American lexicography began to develop much later at the end of the 18 th century. The work greatly improved the coverage of scientific and technical terms, as well as terms to do with American culture and institutions and added a great deal of encyclopedic information. The most famous American dictionary was compiled by Noah Webster. He published a two volume dictionary (70,000 words), which was called American Dictionary of the English language. He tried to simplify English spelling and transcription.
The label «American» in the title is more a reflection of the works of American authors referred to than of its uniquely American lexicon. The American Dictionary made by Webster was fiercely attacked in Britain for its Americanism especially in matters of spelling and usage. In 1961, The 3 rd edition of International Dictionary appeared in America edited by Philip B. Gove, based on a collection of over 6 million citations of usage, and dealing with over 450,000 words. This edition prepared over a 10-year period, took up 757 editor- years, and proved to be highly controversial.
Common Characteristics of Dictionaries The term «dictionary» is used to denote a book listing words of a language with their meaning and often with data regarding pronunciation, usage and origin. Dictionary gives the equivalent words in a different language and can be classified under different heads. The principles of dictionary-making are always based on linguistic fundamentals, and each individual entry is made up in accordance with the current knowledge and findings of scholars in the various fields of language study.
Many dictionaries also provide pronunciation information; grammatical information; word derivations, histories, or etymologies; illustrations; usage guidance; and examples in phrases or sentences. Dictionaries are most commonly found in the form of a book, but now more and more dictionaries are produced as software runs from electronic or a general purpose computer. Dictionaries may either list meanings in the historical order in which they appeared, or may list meanings in order of popularity and most common use.
Any dictionary has been designed to fulfill one or more functions. The dictionary functions chosen by the maker(s) of the dictionary provide the basis for all lexicographic decisions, from the selection of entry words, over the choice of information types, to the choice of place for the information (e.g. in an article or in an appendix).
There are two main types of function: The communication-oriented functions comprise text reception (understanding), text production, text revision, and translation. The knowledge-oriented functions deal with situations where the dictionary is used for acquiring specific knowledge about a particular matter, and for acquiring general knowledge about something.
Glossary Glossary also known as a vocabulary it is an alphabetical list of terms in particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms. Traditionally, a glossary appears at the end of a book and includes terms within that book that are either newly introduced, uncommon, or specialized. A bilingual glossary is a list of terms in one language defined in a second language or glossed by synonyms (or at least near-synonyms) in another langu age.
A Thesaurus A Thesaurus means a collection of words put in groups together according to likeness in their meanings. In general usage, a thesaurus is a reference work that lists words grouped together according to similarity of meaning (containing synonyms and sometimes antonyms), in contrast to a dictionary, which provides definitions for words, and generally lists them in alphabetical order. reference worksynonymsantonyms
Learners dictionaries The term learners dictionaries is confined to dictionaries specifically compiled to meet the demands of the learners for whom English is not their mother tongue. The common purpose of learners dictionaries is to give information on what is currently accepted in modern English, to give an important characteristics of lexical units.
Learners dictionaries can be classified in accordance with different principles: the scope of the word-list; the nature of information afforded; If we take into consideration these two main principles all learners dictionaries are usually divided into: elementary/basic/ pre-intermediate learners dictionaries; intermediate learners dictionaries; upper- intermediate - advanced learners dictionaries.
Classification of Dictionaries The main types of dictionaries are classified under different heads according to the choice of items included and the sort of information given about these dictionaries. English dictionaries fall into diachronic and synchronic with regard to time. Diachronic (historical) dictionaries, of which The Oxford English Dictionary is the main example, reflect the development of the English vocabulary by recording the history of form and meaning for every word registered. Synchronic dictionaries or (descriptive dictionaries) are concerned with present-day meaning and usage of words, e.g. Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English.
According to the choice of items included and the sort of information given about these items all dictionaries may be divided into two big groups – encyclopedic and linguistic. Encyclopedic dictionaries are scientific reference book giving information on all branches of knowledge, or with one particular branch. These dictionaries deal not with words, but with facts and concepts. Encyclopedic dictionaries describe different objects, phenomena and people and give some information about them. The best known encyclopedias of the English-speaking world are: the Encyclopedia Britannica (in 24 volumes) and the Encyclopedia Americana (in 30 volumes).
There exist also biographical dictionaries and many minor encyclopedias. Very popular book in Great Britain and the USA are also Collier s Encyclopedia (in 24 volumes) intended for students and school teachers; Chambers Encyclopedia (in 15 volumes ) which is a family type reference book, and Everymans Encyclopedia (in 12 volumes) designed for all round use. There also numerous dictionaries presenting information about notable persons (scientists, writers, kings, presidents, etc.) often called Whos Who dictionaries.
Linguistic dictionaries Linguistic dictionaries are word-books the subject-matter of which is lexical units and their linguistic properties: pronunciation, definition, meaning, origin and other linguistic information. Linguistic dictionaries describe vocabulary units, their semantic structure, their origin and their usage; words are usually given in the alphabetical order. Words can be listed with etymologies or with their equivalents in another language (or other languages).
Linguistic dictionaries can be divided into two classes by different criteria. According to the nature of their word-list we may speak about general dictionaries and restricted or specialized dictionaries. General dictionaries contain lexical units in ordinary use with this or that proportion of items from various spheres of life. These dictionaries present a complete picture of a language and are devoted to general user. General dictionaries include frequency dictionary, a rhyming dictionary, explanatory (monolingual) and translation (bilingual) dictionaries.
Frequency dictionaries Most Frequency dictionaries and tables of word frequencies published in English-speaking countries were constructed to make up lists of words considered suitable as the basis for teaching English as a foreign language. The famous basic dictionaries are the E. Throndike dictionaries and M. Wests General Service List. In the 70s-90s there appeared a number of frequency dictionaries of English made up by linguists for the purposes of automatic analysis of scientific and technical texts and for teaching purposes.
Explanatory dictionaries Explanatory dictionaries present a wide range of data, especially with regard to the semantic aspect of the vocabulary items entered, e.g. the New Oxford Dictionary of English, Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary. In explanatory dictionaries the appendixes of the first kind usually include various word-lists: geographical names, foreign words and expressions, forenames, record new meanings of words already entered and words that have come into existence since the compilation of the word- book. The educational material may include a list of colleges and universities, special signs and symbols used in various branches of science, tables of weights and measures.
Restricted or Specialized dictionaries Restricted or Specialized dictionaries cover only a certain specific part of the vocabulary belonging to terminological, phraseological, slang, neologisms, dialected word-books, dictionaries of new words, of foreign words, synonyms and antonyms, abbreviations focus on linguistic and factual matters relating to specific subject fields. Restricted dictionaries make their choice only from a certain part of the word-stock, the restriction being based on any principle determined by the compiler.
A distinction would be made between two types of specialized dictionaries, namely maximizing and minimizing dictionaries. A maximizing dictionary is intended to cover by far the greatest part of the vocabulary of the subject field under consideration. A minimizing dictionary is designed to cover only a limited part of this vocabulary, for instance the most frequently used LSP terms. The total number of words in a good minimizing general language dictionary has been estimated to be approximately 30,000. In specialized dictionaries, the number varies depend on the size of the vocabulary of the LSP in question.
According to the typological characteristic all specialized dictionaries are divided into the following types: A multi-field dictionary has been designed and compiled to cover the terms within two or more subject fields. Multi-field dictionary is an example of the ordinary technical dictionary, covering a large number of separate subject fields, e.g. banking, economics, finance, insurance and marketing. The main problem with multi-field dictionaries is that they tend to cover one or two subjects extensively, whereas the vast majority of subjects are only represented by a very limited number of terms.
A sub-field dictionary that has been designed and compiled to cover the terms of one (or possibly more) sub-fields of a particular subject field. Examples of sub-field dictionaries are a dictionary of contract law (as opposed to the single-field dictionary of law) and a dictionary of fusion welding (as opposed to a dictionary of welding), or a dictionary of ethical philosophy (as opposed to a dictionary of philosophy).
A single-field dictionary that has been designed and compiled to cover the terms of one particular subject field. Single-field dictionaries should be contrasted with multi-field dictionaries and sub-field dictionaries.multi-field dictionariessub-field dictionaries The main advantage of single-field dictionaries is that they can easily be maximizing dictionaries, i.e. attempt to cover as many terms of the subject field as possible without being a dictionary in several volumes. Consequently, single-fields dictionaries are ideal for extensive coverage of the linguistic and extra-linguistic aspects within a particular subject field.maximizing dictionaries
Specialized dictionaries Specialized dictionaries deal with lexical units only in relation to some of their characteristics, e.g. only in relation to their etymology or frequency, pronunciation,usage. Dictionaries of abbreviations, synonyms, antonyms, borrowings, proverbs, toponyms, slangs and dialects give the specific characteristics and description of the lexical units. For example, Dictionaries of American English Dialect and Slang Words, Dictionaries of Old English and Middle English with explanations in Modern English, Dictionary of Homonyms and Paronyms.
Pharaselogical dictionaries in England and America have accumulated vast collections of idiomatic or colloquial phases, proverbs and other, usually image-bearing word-groups with profuse illustrations. The well-known an Anglo-Russian Phraseological Dictionary by A.V. Koonin has many advantages over the reference books published abroad
Dictionaries of slang contain elements from areas of substandard speech such as vulgarism, jargonisms, taboo words, curse-words, colloquialisms, etc. The most well-known dictionaries of this type are: Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English by E. Partridge, Dictionary of the Underworld: British and American, The American Thesaurus of Slang by L.V. Berry & M. Den Bork, The Dictionary of American Slang by H. Wentworth and S.B. Flexner.
Pronouncing dictionaries record contemporary pronunciation. As compared with the phonetic characteristics of words given by other dictionaries is much more detailed: they indicate variant pronunciations. The world famous English Pronouncing Dictionary by Daniel Jones, is considered to provide the most expert guidance on British English pronunciation. The most popular dictionary for the American variant is A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English by J. S. Kenyon and T. A. Knott.
Etymological dictionaries trace present-day words to the oldest forms of these words and forms of these words in other languages. All types of dictionaries according to the language of explanation may be monolingual or bilingual, i.e. the information about the items entered may be given in the same language or in another one. In monolingual dictionaries the words and the information about them are given in the same language, e.g. Macmillan Essential Dictionary for learners of English, Dictionary of Neologisms, Longman Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs, New Oxford Learners Thesaurus (a dictionary of synonyms).
Bilingual dictionaries are those that explain words by giving their equivalents in another language, the meanings of words and their contexts are translated into the target-language system, e.g. the English- Russian Phraseological Dictionary by A.V. Kunin, English-Russian Dictionary by Prof. V.K. Müller. All bilingual dictionaries have two principal purposes: reference for translation and guidance for expression. These dictionaries provide an adequate translation of every item in the target (second) language and expression in the source language.
Bilingual dictionaries B.D-s are available in a number of formats, and often include a grammar reference and usage examples. Printed dictionaries – Printed dictionaries range from small pocket-sized editions to large, comprehensive multi-volume works. Handheld electronic dictionaries (also: Pocket electronic dictionaries or PEDs) – Electronic dictionaries are small devices that receive input via a miniature keyboard, speech recognition or a scanning device that reads printed text, and outputs the translation on a small LCD screen or speaks the translation audibly.keyboardspeech recognitionscanning deviceLCD Dictionary programs – software that allows words or phrases to be input and translated on computers and smart phones.software
Online dictionaries – Online dictionaries similar to dictionary programs, these are often easy to search, but not always free to use, and in some cases lack the accuracy (particularly in open collaborative dictionaries), or scope of printed and electronic dictionaries.Online dictionaries Visual dictionaries – A visual dictionary is a printed dictionary that relies primarily on illustrations to provide the user with a reliable way of identifying the correct translation. Visual dictionaries are often multi-lingual rather than bilingualinstead of containing translations between two languages they often cover four or more languages.visual dictionaryillustrationsmulti-lingual
The most representative translation dictionaries for English The Russian-English Dictionary under Prof. A.I. Smirnitsky gives the general direction which differs from other word- books of its kind on account of various additional information that accompanies both Russian vocabulary items and their English translations; more attention than usual is given to the phonetic and grammatical aspects of words, to the way words are combined in speech. Smaller word-books of this type are The English-Russian Dictionary by V.D. Arakin, Z.S. Vygodskaya and N.N. Ilyina.
English-Russian Dictionary by Prof. V.K. Muller contains the full lexical information including translation into Russian,70,000 entries. The dictionary is more informative on the semantic structure and usage of words, giving a number of meanings for each word, the prepositions it requires and the words it can be combined with. Pocket English-Russian Dictionary by O.P. Benyuck and G.V. Chernov includes over 7,500.
The Oxford English-Russian Dictionary contains over 180,000 words and phrases and over 290,000 translations. In Oxford English-Russian Dictionary within an entry, differences of meaning or application there are given synonyms, contexts or other means of lemma; all examples are printed in bold and word compounds, idioms and set phrases are given in the separate column; also clearly indicated in italics within brackets the status or level of usage of the word.
Cambridge Learners Dictionary has its own advantages: the Russian translation words printed in red color with the new lexical information are presented in graphical illustrations and the table at the end of entry with the word-partners. All these dictionaries without exception are convenient to use. Different in size, scope and aim the dictionaries differ in word-lists and length of entry.
Main English Dictionaries The famous and the self-styled premier dictionary of the English language is the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), published by the Oxford University Press. In 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933 this dictionary was fully reprinted as twelve volumes with one volume supplement and in 1989 the second edition was published in twenty volumes with more supplements. In 2011 the editors had completed the third edition with descriptions for approximately 600,000 words.dictionaryEnglish languageOxford University Press
The Oxford English Dictionary, or other dictionaries aimed at speakers of English with native-level competence. The dictionary was first published in 1948 and the current edition is the Eighth edition published in 2010.Oxford English Dictionary The first electronic version of the dictionary was made in The online version has been available since 2000, and as of August 2010 was receiving two million hits per month from paying subscribers.
Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary The first Advanced learner's dictionary was the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary, first published 64 years ago. It is the largest English language dictionary from Oxford University Press aimed at a non-native audience. Users with a more linguistic interest, requiring etymologies or copious references, usually prefer the Concise Oxford Dictionary, or indeed the magnum opus, the Oxford English Dictionary, or other dictionaries aimed at speakers of English with native-level competence.English languageOxford University PressConcise Oxford Dictionarymagnum opusOxford English Dictionary
Concise Oxford English Dictionary The Concise Oxford Dictionary abbreviated (COD) is probably the best-known of the 'smaller' Oxford dictionaries. The latest edition of the Concise Oxford Dictionary contains over 240,000 entries and 1,728 pages (concise only compared to the OED at over 21,000 pages). Its twelfth edition, published in 2011, is used by the United Nations as the current authority for spellings in documents written in the English language for international use. It is available free on the web and as an electronic e-Book for a variety of handheld device platforms. In addition to providing information for general use, it documents local variations such as U.S. and U.K. usage. dictionariesUnited NationsEnglish languagee-Bookhandheld deviceU.S.U.K.
New Oxford American Dictionary The New Oxford American Dictionary (NOAD) is a single-volume dictionary of American English compiled by American editors at the Oxford University Press.dictionaryAmerican EnglishOxford University Press NOAD is based upon the New Oxford Dictionary of English (NODE), published in the United Kingdom in 1998, although with substantial editing, additional entries, and the inclusion of illustrations. It is based on a corpus linguistics analysis of Oxford's 200 million word database of contemporary American English.New Oxford Dictionary of EnglishUnited Kingdomcorpus linguisticsAmerican English
Noah Webster's "American Dictionary of the English Language Noah Webster (1758–1843), the author of the readers and spelling books that dominated the American market at the time, spent decades of research in compiling his dictionaries. His first dictionary A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language (конспективный) appeared in 1806 where he introduced features that would be a hallmark of future editions such as American spellings (center, theater, honor, color, program, catologe, favorite etc.). He included technical terms from the arts and sciences rather than confining his dictionary to literary words.
Webster's Third New International Dictionary was published in September 1961 after about a decade of preparation by G. C. Merriam who issued the entirely new Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, commonly known as Webster's Third, or W3. A team of lexicographers compiled the new form of dictionary which contained more than 450,000 entries, including over 100,000 new entries and as many new senses for entries carried over from previous editions.