Презентация на тему: " L/O/G/O Medical databases Student: Nishanbaeva F. Croup: 101 B MPD Teacher: Khalmetov Z.S. Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Republic of." — Транскрипт:
L/O/G/O Medical databases Student: Nishanbaeva F. Croup: 101 B MPD Teacher: Khalmetov Z.S. Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan The South Kazakhstan State Pharmaceutical Academy Medical Biophysics and Information Technologies department
Plan І. Introduction ІІ. Main part Understand basic database structure Use of Boolean Logic Use Field Searching ІІІ. Сonclusion ІV. Bibliography
Reasons for Searching the Medical Literature To answer a specific patient case-related question (clinical practice) To learn more about a medical topic (education) To determine current best practice (guideline) To give the best possible care to patients using evidence-based medicine
Information Overload PubMed (Medline) contains over 18 million journal citations going back to ~1950 Year # new citations added* , , , ,904 *statistics from
Asking the Question: PICO –Patient, Population or Problem What are the characteristics of the patient or population? What is the condition or disease you are interested in? –Intervention or exposure What do you want to do with this patient (e.g. treat, diagnose, observe)? –Comparison What is the alternative to the intervention (e.g. placebo, different drug, surgery)? –Outcome What are the relevant outcomes (e.g. morbidity, death, complications)?
Parsing the Question What are the main concepts in your question? Sample question: Does nutrition therapy improve decubitus (pressure) ulcer healing in an elderly patient? Concepts: Nutrition therapyDecubitus/pressure ulcers Ulcer healingElderly patients Treatment efficacy
A database is an organized collection of data. Bibliographic databases are searched through many of the same techniques as any other database Focus will be on PubMed, but these techniques apply to ANY literature database
Examples of Records and Fields Record # AuthorTitlePublisher Date of Publication 1 Jones KM Infectious Diseases Wiley Smith BR Medicine Cambridge Univ. Press Johnson AS CancerElsevier Bradley PL AsthmaSynergy2003
Examples of Records and Fields Record # AuthorTitlePublisher Date of Publication 1 Jones KM Infectious Diseases Wiley Smith BR Medicine Cambridge Univ. Press Johnson AS CancerElsevier Bradley PL AsthmaSynergy2003 RED=RECORD BLUE=FIELD PURPLE = ONE PIECE OF DATA
Searching a Database Different search interfaces do the same things in slightly different ways Good search interfaces should provide –Ability to search for a specific item –Ability to search for related items to a known item –Ability to search in a specific field or fields –Ability to combine search terms using Boolean Logic –Ability to retrieve search results in a useful way
Boolean Logic A British mathematician named George Boole ( ) developed an algebraic system of logic that is now widely used in computer and electronic systems including database searching. While Booles algebraic system can be complex, a very simple form of Boolean Logic is used for searching most bibliographic databases.
Boolean Operators Standard Boolean Logic for database searching uses 3 relationships among search terms. AND OR NOT It is both simple and powerful.
AND BOTH terms included in any results. If a record has only one of the two terms, it will not be retrieved. If the record has neither term, it will not be retrieved. What does this do to the amount of records retrieved?
OR Only one (NOT both) of the terms are in the results OR will retrieve the record if both are included. What does OR do to the amount of records retrieved?
NOT Excludes any results containing the term Records containing both will not be retrieved. What does NOT do to the amount of records retrieved?
Using OR OR groupings contain terms for the same idea/concept and are usually put in parenthesis (term OR term OR term) where all terms are difference ways of representing the same concept (faculty OR teachers OR professors) (students OR learners OR pupils)
Using AND AND groupings contain terms for different ideas/concepts and can combine OR groupings Term AND (Term OR Term) where each represents a different concept heart attack AND smoking Diabetes AND exercise Cancer AND (treatment OR therapy)
Using NOT NOT statements are usually put last and can contain an OR grouping; they are often used to get rid of a common subgroup Students NOT dental Diabetes NOT juvenile
Putting Them Together 1.Identify the concepts (Parse the question) 2.List specific terms for each concept 3.Put the terms for each concept in an OR statements within parentheses 4.Combine OR statements with AND 5.Add any NOT statements to the end
Creating a Boolean Search Concept 1 Influenza Concept 2 Vitamin C Concept 3 Treatment Concept 4 helpfulness Influenza Vitamin C TreatmentOutcome Flu Ascorbic acid TherapyRecovery Orange Juice ManagementSuccess QUESTION: Is Vitamin C helpful in treating the flu? 1.Identify concepts and list terms
Step 2 2. Make your OR statements, one per concept –(influenza OR flu OR orthomyxovirus) –(vitamin C OR ascorbic acid OR ascorbate) –(treatment OR therapy OR management) –(outcome OR recovery OR success)
Steps 3 and 4 3. Put AND between each of the OR statements (influenza OR flu) AND (vitamin C OR ascorbic acid OR orange juice) AND (treatment OR therapy OR management) AND (outcome OR recovery OR success) 4. Consider any NOT statements you might want to add. Note: NOT isnt used very often
Parsing a Boolean Search (emergency OR acute OR critical) AND (treatment OR therapy OR management OR care) AND (motor vehicle accident OR car crash) NOT (pedestrian OR walking ) What are the four concepts? What terms are used for each concept? Which three concepts must be included in all records found? Which concept must not be included in any record found?
Beyond Basic Boolean Field Searching Controlled Vocabulary –Subject vs. Keyword Searching Specialty Features –Truncation –Phrase searching
Field Searching Almost all databases will provide you with some ability to search a specific field or fields. Allows faster searching Allows more accurate searching Not all databases may make all fields searchable. Each search system will require a specific format.
ІV. Bibliography 1.Shahani, Aarti (13 February 2015). "The Black Market For Stolen Health Care Data : All Tech Considered : NPR". npr.org. Retrieved 17 February Abelson, Reed; Goldstein, Matthew (5 February 2015). "Anthem Hacking Points to Security Vulnerability of Health Care Industry". The New York Times. New York: NYTC. ISSN Retrieved 17 February Richards, Robbie (16 November 2015). "Healthcare data breaches present a $6 billion threat". royaljay.com. Retrieved 16 November Millman, Jason (19 August 2014). "Health care data breaches have hit 30M patients and counting". The Washington Post. Washington DC: WPC. ISSN Retrieved 17 February 2015.