Презентация на тему: " P SYCHOLOGICAL EDUCATION AT THE UNIVERSITY P SYCHOLOGY OF COGNITIVE ACTIVITY Almaty 2015 Kazakh Ablaikhan University of International Relations and World." — Транскрипт:
P SYCHOLOGICAL EDUCATION AT THE UNIVERSITY P SYCHOLOGY OF COGNITIVE ACTIVITY Almaty 2015 Kazakh Ablaikhan University of International Relations and World Languages
Plan of the lecture Activities and cognitive processes The problem of synthesis of cognitive processes (perception, memory, thinking) as the basis of innovative teaching technologies The effectiveness of the learning process how to arrange co- dialogical informative activity effectively Conclusion
I NTRODUCTION We need the systematic research of the consciousness formation of a person in psychology. It was possible to study some features of cognitive (self-knowledge), emotional (emotional and value attitude to oneself) and behavioural (self-regulation of behaviour of a person) components of consciousness. Some features of I-concept of the children of preschool age and teenagers and students were experimentally studied. There are questions in psychology of cognitive activity to consider: About the place of research activity in the activity of a person; - About the connection of research conduct, intelligence and creativity; - About the methodology of studying of complex dynamic systems and methods of studying research activity; - About the types and concrete strategies of research conduct; - About the ambiguity and discrepancy of a social context in the development of research activity, and about the help and counteraction of research activity in various social interactions.
Cognition is the process of acquiring and understanding knowledge through our thoughts, experiences, and senses. Learning involves acquiring knowledge through experience, study, or being taught. If you think that these two concepts are awfully similar, you're right. Both are inexorably linked - learning requires cognition and cognition involves learning. Whenever you see or hear something new, you go through a series of cognitive processes, which are the processes that result in learning. What Is Cognition?
The Different Cognitive Processes Attention Next, the information that you are paying attention to has to be put into memory in a process called storage. There are three levels of memory through which information must travel to be truly learned. Let's say that for the first time you hear that the capital of the state of Oregon is Salem. This information is now in your sensory register, which holds everything you are exposed to for just a second or two. By the end of this sentence, you may have already forgotten the capital of Oregon. If you pay attention and reread the sentence, however, that information will move from the sensory register into short-term memory. This area of your memory will hold information anywhere from 20 seconds up to a minute. Short-term/ working memory (limited storage) Long-term memory (unlimited storage)
ATTENTION The first step in the cognitive learning process is attention. In order to begin learning, a student must be paying attention to what they are experiencing. As anyone who has been in a class full of children knows, attention isn't unlimited and can be quite fleeting. Educational psychologists have come to the conclusion that the average person can hold approximately two or three learned tasks in their attention at the same time. This means that if you are trying to dust and vacuum simultaneously you may be able to pull it off, but throw in eating a sandwich and odds are good you'll take a bite out of your duster and smear lunchmeat on the walls.
Attention is a concept studied in cognitive psychology that refers to how we actively process specific information in our environment. As you are reading this, there are numerous sights, sounds and sensations going on around you – the pressure of your feet against the floor, the sight of the street out of a nearby window, the soft warmth of your shirt, the memory of a conversation you had earlier with a friend. Ability to sustain concentration on a particular object, action, or thought, and ability to manage competing demands in our environment.cognitive psychology
Perception Recognition and interpretation of sensory stimuli (smell, touch, hearing, etc.) Perception is the process of recognizing and interpreting sensory stimuli. Learn the definition of perception, how it is related to the five senses, how it differs from reality, and more. Perception can be defined as our recognition and interpretation of sensory information. Perception also includes how we respond to the information. We can think of perception as a process where we take in sensory information from our environment and use that information in order to interact with our environment. Perception allows us to take the sensory information in and make it into something meaningful.
M EMORY IS S USTAINED BY U SE Each time students participate in any endeavor, a certain number of neurons are activated. When they repeat the action, the same neurons respond again. The more times they repeat an action, the more dendrites grow and interconnect, resulting in greater memory storage and recall efficiency. when new memories are connected to other stored memories based on commonalities, such as similarities/differences, especially when students use graphic organizers and derive their own connections. Multisensory instruction, practice, and review promote memory storage in multiple regions of the cortex, based on the type of sensory input by which they were learned and practiced. These are distant storage centers are linked to each other such that triggering one sensory memory activates the others. Memory is persistentRetention is further promoted
H ABITS THAT I MPROVE C OGNITIVE F UNCTION Digital games are incapable of giving the entire brain a full workout. These digital programs can't really exercise the cerebellum (Latin: "Little Brain") and, therefore, are literally only training half your brain. These "brain-training workouts" are the equivalent of only ever doing upper body workouts, without ever working out your lower body.
Physical Activity Openness to Experience Curiosity and CreativityCreativity Social Connections Mindfulness Meditation Brain-Training Games Get Enough Sleep Reduce Chronic StressStress
B ENEFICIAL G AME FOR BRAIN Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) discovered more evidence that physical activity is beneficial for brain health and cognition. The study found that certain hormones, which are increased during exercise, may help improvememory. The researchers were able to correlate blood hormone levels from aerobic fitness, and identify positive effects on memory function linked to exercise.hormonesmemory
Part 1 Conditioning and Learning Listening Comprehension Questions: 1.What is learning? Explain with examples 2.What is cognitive learning? 3.What is stimulus? What is response? 4.What is the difference between classical and operant conditioning? 5.What have you learnt about Pavlovs classical conditioning? 6.What are Pavlovian Terms? 7.What examples does the speaker use to explain them? 8.What do you know about classical conditioning in Humans? 9.Why Skinners Pigeons explaining operant conditioning is important in learning? 10.What two types of reinforcement have you heard? 11. Why does a teacher use punishment in learning?
Mind-engaging activities improve cognitive function. It seems it is not enough just to get out and do somethingit is important to get out and do something that is unfamiliar and mentally challenging, and that provides broad stimulation mentally and socially. When you are inside your comfort zone you may be outside of the enhancement zone. Practicing a musical instrument increases brain volume and strengthens communication between brain areas. Feeling lonely can trigger psychological and cognitive decline.
Part 2 How do we learn? Listening Comprehension Questions: What does learning require? When does habituation occur in learning? What are classical conditioning? What do they require?
Conclusion Attention - sometimes our cognitive processing systems get overloaded and we have to select information to process further. This deals with how and why performance improves with attention. Formation of concepts - This aspect studies humans ability to organize experiences into categories. Response to stimulus is determined by the relevant category and the knowledge associated with that particular category. Judgment and decision - This is the study of decision making. Any behavior, implicit or explicit, requires judgment and then a decision or choice.Language processing - This is the study of how language is acquired, comprehended and produced. It also focuses on the psychology of reading. This includes processing words, sentences, concepts, inferences and semantic assumptions.Learning - This is the study of new cognitive or conceptual information that is taken in and how that process occurs. It includes implicit learning that takes into account previous experience on performance.Memory - Studying human memory is a large part of cognitive psychology. It covers the process of acquiring, storing and retrieving memory, including facts, skills and capacity.Perception - This includes the senses and the processing of what we sense. This also includes what we sense and how it interacts with what we already know.
Problem solving - Solving problems is a way that humans achieve goals. Achieving goals - Moving to a goal can include different kinds of reasoning, perception, memory, attention and other brain functions. Reasoning - This is the process of formulating logical arguments. It involves making deductions and inferences and why some people value certain deductions over others. This can be affected by educated intuitive guesses, fallacies or stereotypes.