Outline 1.1 Introduction 1.2 The Enlightenment 1.3 Natural science and early technology 1.4 Agricultural revolution, industrial revolution and urbanization 1.5 Technological revolutions
Jonathan Swift, Gullivers Travels, 1726 Chapter I The author giveth some account of himself and family; his first inducements to travel. He is shipwrecked, and swims for his life, gets safe on shore in the country of Lilliput; is made a prisoner, and carried up the country.
Jonathan Swift, Gullivers Travels, 1726 MY FATHER HAD a small estate in Nottinghamshire; I was the third of five sons. He sent me to Emanuel-College in Cambridge, at fourteen years old, where I resided three years, and applied my self: but the charge of maintaining me (although close to my studies I had a very scanty allowance) being too great for a narrow fortune;
Jonathan Swift, Gullivers Travels, 1726 I was bound apprentice to Mr James Bates, an eminent surgeon in London, with whom I continued four years; and my father now and then sending me small sums of money, I laid them out in learning navigation, and other parts of the mathematicks, useful to those who intend to travel, as I always believed it would be some time or other my fortune to do.
This short extract from Jonathan Swifts Gullivers Travels stems from the early 18th century, that is, the beginning of the Modern English (ModE) period.Gullivers Travels
What we see in the text? a couple of spelling differences and the relatively formal style, which sounds unusual for a life report. Thus, all in all, the passage sounds like pretty normal English to us.
1.By about 1700 all major changes in the system of English were completed. 3 basic assumptions on Mod E
2. The reduced system of inflectional morphology had basically been established by the end of the ME period already. 3 basic assumptions on Mod E
3. The analytical syntactic system, as we know it today, was almost fully present by the end of the EModE period. 3 basic assumptions on Mod E
In the same period the last drastic sound change occurred in the form of the Great Vowel Shift. Great Vowel Shift
The Great Vowel Shift was a major change in the pronunciation of the English language, generally accomplished in the 15th century, although evidence suggests it began as early as the 14th century.pronunciationEnglish language15th century 14th century The shift continued for some time into the 16th century, spreading toward the non- metropolitan and non-port areas. It represented a change in the long vowels (i.e., a vowel shift). 16th centuryvowelsvowel shift
The principal changes /a ː / /e ɪ / (as in make) / ɛː / /e ɪ / or /i ː / (as in break or beak) /e ː / /i ː / (as in feet) /i ː / /a ɪ / (as in mice) / ɔː / /o ʊ / (as in boat) /o ː / /u ː / (as in boot) /u ː / /a ʊ / (as in mouse)
Lexicon The Modern English period basically just featured another major extension of the lexicon and some minor changes of lexical meaning
However… the lexical system of English was very dynamic throughout its history and it still is a very dynamic system today
Status and form of English as a linguistic standard It replaced Latin as the language of learning at the end of the EModE period
English became the language to cover: ALL DISCURSIVE FUNCTIONS STYLES AND REGISTERS
The major changes in the ModE period concern the dialects and sociolinguistics of English
English goes through a phase of social diversification and stratification The boundaries between traditional rural dialects have become less clearcut Starting the 15 th century
The changed relationships between English lects are the effects of the changed social and demographic patterns in England caused by the massive technological advances in modern times. !!!
Age of Enlightenment is a term used to describe the trends in thought and letters in Europe and the American colonies during the 18th century prior to the French Revolution
The phrase was frequently employed by writers of the period itself, convinced that they were emerging from centuries of darkness and ignorance into a new age enlightened by reason, science, and a respect for humanity (Think of the Renaissance)
The overview of historical landmarks that influenced English in the modern period starts with philosophy
So what were the major philosophical ideas that shaped the modern period?
The world is no longer characterised by humankind being subject to nature, but rather by humankind becoming able to control nature itself
The role of ideas becomes increasingly important for the human construction of history
So what were the major philosophical ideas that shaped the modern period?
What philosophers contributed to Enlightenment?
Voltaire The French writer and philosopher Voltaire is considered one of the central figures of the Age of Enlightenment of the 1700s, a period which emphasised the power of human reason, science, and respect for humanity
Voltaire believed that literature should serve as a vehicle for social change His biting satires and philosophical writings demonstrated his aversion to Christianity, intolerance, and tyranny
René Descartes The first modern philosopher and founder of the rationalist school, René Descartes used reason and mathematics to analyse the world
Descartes book Meditations on the First Philosophy offered a proof of the existence of God founded on reason, not faith Descartes deduced truths about the outer world based on his sensual perception of it. This method of reasoning became a standard philosophical procedure
Immanuel Kant Eighteenth-century German philosopher Immanuel Kant explored the possibilities of what reason can tell about the world of experience
In his critiques of science, morality, and art, Kant attempted to derive universal rules to which, he claimed, every rational person should subscribe
people cannot understand the nature of the things in the universe but they can be rationally certain of what they experience themselves within this realm of experience, fundamental notions such as space and time are certain Critique of Pure Reason (1781)
On the social-political level, the French political philosophers Rousseau and Voltaire questioned absolutism by claiming that inequality and social suffering stem from an unnatural civilisational development that destroys the good in people RousseauVoltaire
What is EPISTEMOLOGY branch of philosophy which studies the nature, origin, and scope of knowledgephilosophyknowledge the word "epistemology" originated from the Greek words episteme (knowledge) and logos (word/speech)Greek epistemelogos
Some European continental philosophers will use the term gnoseology to refer to the theory of knowledgecontinental philosophers The use of this term was introduced in the 19th century by German philosophers Different approaches to the theory of knowledge
EPISTEMOLOGY is sometimes generally used to refer to the theory of knowledge as studied in analytic philosophy as such by American and British philosophers analytic philosophy
Ideological and epistemological innovation that defined and still defines the modern period is subsumed under the general term Enlightenment.Enlightenment
This general philosophical movement of the 18th century defined a intellectual context in which enlightened rationality was regarded as the key toward scientific progress
Enlightened intellectuals became highly confident in the power of rationality and knowledge
Their ideas paved the way for the French and American Revolutions. Also, they provided the basis for Marxs socialist movement, which has shaped modern ideas on social systems to the present day. Why was it important
On the epistemological level, the rationalist ideas of Descartes became very influential for modern science, mathematics, and geometry. (Think about Cartesian coordinate systems!). Descartess objectivism was challenged by Kants phenomenological Critique of Pure Reason. Critique of Pure Reason
Sir Isaac Newton derived the law of universal gravitation invented the branch of mathematics called calculus performed important experiments dealing with the nature of light and colour
Newtons discovery of gravity inspired research of natural laws. The idea that man could unlock the secrets of the natural world helped to bring about the Age of Enlightenment. Reason and education earned a higher status than religion in the society that emerged from this new age.
Thomas Jefferson used many ideas that emerged during the Age of Enlightenment, especially those regarding individual rights, in the Declaration of Independence
His thoughts also influenced the writers of the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Jefferson believed that the success of democracy depended upon the reasoned decisions of voters.
Thomas Jefferson championed public education in United States politics When Jefferson became the third United States president in 1801, he implemented many of his ideas regarding government and politics
Darwins theory of evolutiontheory of evolution put a new light on biology in general and the nature of humankind in particular. can be regarded as one of the landmarks in the development towards modern biotechnology
Michael Faraday In the area of physics, the discovery of electromagnetic waves was one of the absolute milestones to determine modern life and lifestyle.
Without scientists such as Michael Faraday – a pioneer in electrophysics - modern communication technology or atomic physics would not exist. Michael Faraday
Without these scientific achievements, a great number of modern developments would never have happened.
1.4 Agricultural revolution, industrial revolution and urbanisation
In the modern period, massive transformati ons took place on the social scale.
These dramatic demographic shifts would not have occurred without the new political philosophy on the one hand and the rapid technological progress, on the other.
Technological progress first applied to the one sector that is of most relevance to human survival: FOOD.
Technological progress The 19th century experienced an agricultural revolution: agricultural revolution
Agricultural output increased due to … introduction of fertilisers
Thanks to these achievements, the last major famine in Europe dates back as far as 1840
With the increase of agricultural production there was a remarkable decline in manpower in the agricultural sector. With the introduction of farming machinery, less hands were needed.
Thus, since people were no longer tied to the soil to earn a scanty living and since food supplies were becoming more and more reliable, a great number of people started to work in industry or commerce. For these people urban life with its concentration of employment opportunities became far more interesting.
Thus, 19th century England experienced massive population movement away from the countryside into the city. Of course, this large-scale movement of people can only be explained when considering another revolution: the Industrial Revolution. Industrial Revolution It was industrialisation that created most new job opportunities for non- educated rural workers.
The effect of this economic reorientation was urbanisation, i.e. the massive growth of towns all over England.
Fundamental changes in demographic patterns The combined influence of the agricultural and industrial revolutions caused Fundamental changes in demographic patterns that had shaped England for hundreds of years.
This had tremendous social consequences: social classes in Britain were restructured.
The landed aristocracy lost its power and influence to industrial entrepreneurs. And with the demise of the landed aristocracy also came the demise of the peasantry, who had earned their living of the gentrys land.
With the migration of farmers into the cities, the foundations for the British class-based society were laid - class now being mostly defined in economic terms
Social stratification into working class lower-middle class upper-middle class and upper class
London became the heart of the British class-based society, but all the major British cities basically mirrored the same social make-up.
In the urban context social networks became more diffuse Conclusions
Traditional close-knit rural communities were replaced by very complex and dynamic urban social systems.
Conclusions Urbanisation promoted diversification because it brought a great number of different social groups together
Conclusions urbanisation led to uniformity of behaviour because people started to accommodate to one another.
Conclusions All these combined influenced the linguistic developments of English.
Speech pattern were also heavily influenced by two further technological developments: transportation technology with the increase of mobility and communication technology.
On the basis of these inventions, social interaction and communication became even more diverse and complex. Nowadays, it is virtually possible for everybody to travel to any place they like.
Moreover, communication has grown global and become independent of distances. This affects patterns of linguistic usage and creates tendencies towards uniformity, but also tendencies towards linguistic change (e.g. the development of English as a new linguistic genre).
This affects patterns of linguistic usage and creates tendencies towards uniformity, but also tendencies towards linguistic change (e.g. the development of English as a new linguistic genre).