HISTORY AND ORIGINS CANADIAN ENGLISH AS A HYBRID OF BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISHES. IT ALSO HAS INFLUENCE FOR FRENCH. THIS VARIETY OF ENGLISH IS A PRODUCT OF FOUR WAVES OF IMMIGRATIONS, THE MOST IMPORTANT ONES: THE LOYALISTS FORM NORTHERN AMERICA FROM BRITAIN AND IRELAND FROM FRANCE
Merging word pairs OFFAL/AWFUL DON/DOWN HOCK/HAWK TOT/TAUGHT OTTO/AUTO LAGER/LOGGER
Canadian colloquialisms ONE OF THE MOST DISTINCTIVE CANADIAN PHRASES IS THE SPOKEN INTERJECTION "EH", WHICH IS STEREOTYPED AS BEING SAID BY ALL CANADIANS IN MODERN CULTURE. THE ONLY USAGE OF "EH" EXCLUSIVE TO CANADA, ACCORDING TO THE "CANADIAN OXFORD DICTIONARY", IS FOR "ASCERTAINING THE COMPREHENSION, CONTINUED INTEREST, AGREEMENT, ETC., OF THE PERSON OR PERSONS ADDRESSED" AS IN, "IT'S FOUR KILOMETRES AWAY, EH, SO I HAVE TO GO BY BIKE." IN THAT CASE, "EH?" IS USED TO CONFIRM THE ATTENTION OF THE LISTENER AND TO INVITE A SUPPORTIVE NOISE SUCH AS "MM" OR "OH" OR "OKAY".
The word "hoser", used extensively in Bob and Doug McKenzie skits, refers to an uncouth, beer drinking man. ["Oxford English Dictionary", third edition (in progress), "hoser".] A "keener" is someone who is keen or enthusiastic to do a task; in some contexts derogatory. A "Canuck" is a Canadian and used by Canadians with pride; it is not a derogatory term. In the 19th and early 20th Centuries it tended to refer to French-Canadians only until it became adopted widely in English as a result of the "Johnny Canuck" comic book character. It is also the name for Vancouver's NHL team. A "Newf" or "Newfie" is someone from Newfoundland and Labrador; sometimes considered derogatory. In the Maritimes, a "Caper" is someone from Cape Breton, a "Bluenoser" is someone with a thick, usually southern Nova Scotia accent, while an "Islander" is someone from Prince Edward Island (the same term is used in BC for people from Vancouver Island).
CANADIAN ENGLISH COMBINES BOTH AMERICAN AND BRITISH RULES… IN SOME FRENCH-DERIVED WORDS, CANADIAN ENGLISH RETAINS THE BRITISH SPELLING COLOR-HONOUR-CENTRE IN ODER CASES BOTH CANADIAN AND AMERICAN ENGLISH DIFFER FORM BRITISH, IN SPELLING WORDS SUCH AS TIRE AND CURVE CANADIAN ENGLISH RETAINS THE PRACTICE OF BRITISH ENGLISH OF DOUBLING CONSONANT WHEN ADDING SUFFIXES TO WORDS EVEN WHEN THE SYLLABLE IS NOT ESTRESSED: TRAVELLED / TRAVELED Spelling
Phonemic Incidence WORDS OF FRENCH ORIGIN, SUCH AS CORISSANT OR NICHE ARE PRONOUNCED AS THEY WOULD BE IN FRENCH, SO: /K ɹ Ə ˈ S ɒ N(T)/ /NI Ʃ / WORDS SUCH AS ADULT-COMPOSITE AND PROYECT ARE GIVEN EMPHASIS ON THE FIRST SYLLABLE AS IN BRITAIN. LEVER / ˈ LIV Ə / - EITHER AND NEITHER ARE MORE COMMONLY / ˈ A ɪ Ð Ə R/ AND / ˈ NA ɪ Ð Ə R/
WESTERN AND CENTRAL DIALECTS AS IN NORTH AMERICAN ENGLISH, THESE REGIONS ARE CHARACTERIZED BY THE ROTHIC ACCENT. CANADIAN RISING IT IS THE MOST RELEVANT FEATURE OF CANADIAN ENGLISH, HERE THE DIPTHONGS /A ɪ / AND /A Ʊ / ARE "RAISED" BEFORE THE VOICED CONSONANTS; /P/ /T/ /K/ AND /F/ AS IN WRITER