IWS T HEME : T HE HEART AND VASCULAR SYSTEM OF CHILDREN Faculty: Pediatry Group: Performed by: Dautov Dias Checked by: - презентация
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IWS T HEME : T HE HEART AND VASCULAR SYSTEM OF CHILDREN Faculty: Pediatry Group: Performed by: Dautov Dias Checked by:
P ROBLEMS WITH THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Problems with the cardiovascular system are common more than 64 million Americans have some type of cardiac problem. But cardiovascular problems don't just affect older people many heart and circulatory system problems affect children and teens, too.
C ONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS These abnormalities in the heart's structure are present at birth. Approximately 8 out of every 1,000 newborns have congenital heart defects ranging from mild to severe. These defects occur while the fetus is developing in the mother's uterus and it's not usually known why they occur. Some congenital heart defects are caused by genetic disorders, but most are not. What all congenital heart defects have in common, however, is that they involve abnormal or incomplete development of the heart
HEART MURMUR A heart murmur an abnormal sound (like a blowing or whooshing sound) that's heard when listening to the heart. Usually a heart murmur is detected by a doctor who's listening to the heart with a stethoscope during a routine exam. Murmurs are very common in children and can be innocent murmurs found in an otherwise healthy heart. Other murmurs can be caused by congenital heart defects or other heart conditions.
A RRHYTHMIA Cardiac arrhythmias, also called dysrhythmias or rhythm disorders, are problems in the rhythm of the heartbeat. They may be caused by a congenital heart defect or they may be acquired later. An arrhythmia may cause the heart's rhythm to be irregular, abnormally fast, or abnormally slow. Arrhythmias can occur at any age and may be discovered during a routine physical examination. Depending on the type of rhythm disorder, an arrhythmia may be treated with medication, surgery, or pacemakers. Some arrhythmias are not harmful.
C ARDIOMYOPATHY This chronic disease causes the heart muscle (the myocardium) to become weakened. Usually, it first affects the lower chambers of the heart, the ventricles, and then progresses and damages the muscle cells and even the tissues surrounding the heart. In its most severe forms, it can lead to heart failure and even death. Cardiomyopathy is the #1 reason for heart transplants in children.
H IGH BLOOD PRESSURE ( HYPERTENSION ) Over time, high blood pressure can damage the heart, arteries, and other body organs. Symptoms can include headache, nosebleeds, dizziness, and lightheadedness. Infants, kids, and teens can have high blood pressure, which may be caused by genetic factors, excess body weight, diet, lack of exercise, and diseases such as heart disease or kidney disease.