1.Adjectives describe nouns. They had a great experience. 2. They normally precede nouns. It was a good answer. 3. There are adjectives which are never followed by a noun: afraid, alike, alive, alone, ashamed, asleep, content, glad, ill; A frightened boy – a boy is afraid A sick friend – my friend is ill The girl was left alone
The Adjective 4. We use adjectives, not adverbs after linking verbs: appear, be, become, get, feel, look, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, drive The soup tastes delicious. She looked happy at the party. It sounds good.
The Adjective 5. They can be There is some word order of adjectives if there are two or more of them: Opinion adjectives go before factual ones: She is a pretty Italian girl. If there are adjectives of the same category the more general goes before more specific. a nice friendly dog, the first three months, the last two hours factual (котрі описують фізичні властивості, нашу думку, ставлення): big, square, red opinion: beautiful, nice
The Adjective When there are two or more factual adjectives they go in order: Opinion Size Age Shape Colour Origin Material Used for/be about Noun Its a nice small old square white Italian wooden dinner table.
The Adjective 7. Nouns which express purpose, material, substances (shopping, cotton, gold, silver…) can be used as adjectives before other nouns He bought a new cotton shirt. I cant find my shopping bag. BUT: gold watch (made of) – golden hair (like…) silk dress (made of…) – silky hair (like…) stone wall – stony look (cold) feather pillow – feathery leaves BUT: wooden table – woolen scarf
The Adjective 8. Certain adjectives are used with article the as nouns to talk about groups of people in general: Age: Physical /health: Social / economic: The old = old people (general) The old people (in particular) The old people (The old) usually walk slowly. The rich pay a lot of income taxes. The old people of our district have been given some help. the elderly, the old, the young; the blind, the deaf, the living, the dead, the disabled, the sick; the poor, the strong, the hungry, the rich, the unemployed;
The Adjective 9. There are also compound adjectives which are formed with: Present Participle Past Participle Cardinal numbers+nouns Prefixes and suffixes Well, badly, ill, poorly, + past participle a well-paid job, poorly-paid worker, an ill-chosen remark A time - consuming task(завдання, яке потребує часу, a never – ending story; worn - out shoes(поношене взуття); a broken –down car; a two-day seminar; a three – week holiday; tax-free goods(неоподатковані товари), a top – secret file, an air – conditioned room;
Comparative and Superlative degrees of Adjectives AdjectivesPositiveComparativeSuperlative Of 1 syllable and 2 syllable ending in – ly, -y, - w Cold, big, safe Busy, shallow, narrow +ER Colder (than…), bigger, safer Busier, shallower, narrower +EST The coldest (of/in) The biggest, the safest The busiest, the shallowest Of 2 or more syllablesFamous, interesting More/less+ More famous, Less interesting Most/least+ The most famous, The least interesting
Comparative and Superlative degrees of Adjectives 1)We use the comparative adjectives to compare one person or thing with another. Sally is prettier than Pam. This house is more expensive than the others. 2) We use than after a comparative. He is shorter than you. 3) We use the before a comparative when only 2 things. Of the 2 cars this is the faster.
Comparative and Superlative degrees of Adjectives 4) We use the superlative adjectives to compare one person or thing with more than one of the same group. We always use the with superlative adjectives. Very often superlative adjectives are used with in (place) or of I am the tallest of all. He is the shortest in the class.
Comparative and Superlative degrees of Adjectives 5) There are adjectives that can form their degrees due to both rules mentioned in the chart. Clever, common, cruel, friendly, gentle, narrow, pleasant, polite, shallow, simple, stupid, quite.
Comparative and Superlative degrees of Adjectives 6) PositiveComparativeSuperlative Goodbetterbest Badworseworst Much/many/a lotmoremost littlelessleast farfurther (маємо на увазі наступний крок, наступне завдання) farther (маємо на увазі відстань) furthest Farthest(дальше на відстані) oldolder Elder (старший за положенням) oldest eldest latelater (останній, а саме свіжий) later (маємо на увазі останній, минулий) latest last
Comparative and Superlative degrees of Adjectives 7) very + positive degree It is very hot weather 8) Most (= very) + adj/adv of positive degree She was most obliging. (She was very obliging) 9) even, much, little, far, a bit + comparative degree He behaves even worse than before. Jenny is much more patient than Julie. 10) The + comparative … the + comparative The clever the man is the more confident he is.
Comparative Constructions 1)AS…AS (так само … як)- + positive degree (in affirmative sentences) His hands were as cold as ice. 2) SO/SUCH/AS…AS - +positive degree (in negative sentences) It is not so/as cold as it was yesterday. This is not such an interesting book as his last one. 3)TWICE (3 TIMES) AS…AS + positive degree The new flat is twice as expensive as our old house.