Environmental Impact of the Industrial Revolution Progress Production, Profit, Pollution. - презентация
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Презентация на тему: " Environmental Impact of the Industrial Revolution Progress Production, Profit, Pollution." — Транскрипт:
Environmental Impact of the Industrial Revolution Progress Production, Profit, Pollution
Industrial Revolution Production and Profit Massive increase in energy use from burning fossil fuels. Agrarian to industry-based economy Rapid and large increase in production of goods Sustained population growth with movement from farm to urban centers Improvements in transportation, agriculture Increase the standard of living
Industrial Revolution Pollution Air pollution Water pollution Global warming Acid rain Deforestation Ecosystem destruction
Overview THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION by Craig Benjamin o_impact_of_ir.ppt o_impact_of_ir.ppt
Air Pollution Particulates from burning fuel and from volcanoes [today also: power plants, auto emissions] Gas emissions from burning fuel and from volcanoes [today also: power plants, auto emissions, industry] – CO 2 : from combustion of fossil fuels by motor vehicles, power plants – SO 2 : from burning fossil fuels, esp coal (90%), volcanoes, wildfires – NO, NO 2 : from burning fossil fuels, esp coal – [CFC (chlorofluorocarbons): now mostly banned]
Detrimental Impact of Air Pollution Production of acid rain Respiratory problems and disease in humans (1952 great London smog killed 4000) Chemical corrosion of buildings and statues Stresses plants (smog reduces sunlight and therefore photosynthesis) and animals
Acid and pH Acids donate H + (aq) ions in water. The more H + (aq) ions present, the more acidic. pH is a measure on the strength of the acid. The pH range is 1-14 with pH 7 being neutral. Unpolluted rain has pH (slightly acidic; the pH of coffee due to the presence of CO 2. The pH of acid rain has been measured as low as 2.4.
Acid Rain Precipitation (rain, snow) that contains acids formed from the reaction of human generated air pollutants, oxygen and water. – SO 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) + H 2 O(g) H 2 SO 4 – 2NO 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) + H 2 O(g) 2HNO 3 – 2NO (g) + 3/2 O 2 (g) + H 2 O(g) 2HNO 3 Note that CO 2 is naturally present in the atm. – 2CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O(g) 2H 2 CO 3
Detrimental Impact of Acid Rain Vegetation suffers due to an increase in mineral leaching at higher acid levels Microbes in the soil are killed Insects suffer evolutionary changes; higher food chain members are affected Aquatic species populations are stressed as oceans become more acidic Buildings and statues are chemically corroded
Acidification of the Lakes, Streams and Oceans Healthy lakes have pH 6.5; at pH 4, the lake is dead. Healthy oceans have pH 8.2; current pH 8 The presence of excess H + (aq) causes – Dissolving/deterioration of seashells – Fish eggs that do not hatch (< pH 5) – Increase in [Al + (aq)] decrease in fish – Decrease in biodiversity
Global Warming The increase in the average temperature of the earths oceans, land and surrounding air. Also called climate change. Depends on incoming and outgoing solar radiation, wind and water currents, atmospheric gases, clouds, volcanic gases and human activities. Car example
Greenhouse Effect Solar radiation – 30% reflected by atmosphere, clouds, dust – 25% absorbed by atmosphere – 45% absorbed by land and oceans Some heats the land and oceans Some is radiated back into the atm as IR radiation 19% escapes out of earths atm 81% is absorbed by greenhouse gases and re-emited, thus warming the earths surface even more. Enhanced greenhouse effect is the problem
e/greenhouse_effect_img.shtml Animation from the BBC
Greenhouse Gases GWP: Global Warming Potential: effectiveness in absorbing IR radiation; measure of contribution to Global Warming Chemistry in Context, 2006, Am. Chem. Soc Increase PersistenceGWP CO 2 33%5-200 yr1 CH 4 160%1223 N2ON2O10%114296
Detrimental Impact of Global Warming More precipitation in some areas flooding Less precipitation in others spread of deserts, change in crops Melting of ice caps rise of sea level Spread of diseases Changes in ecosystems (e.g. Ocean warming) Weather pattern alterations Reduced biodiversity
Water Pollution Water covers 70% of the earth. Much water is held in aquifers – ground water Sources: industrial waste (heavy metals, phosphates, asbestos, nitrates, solvents, petrochemicals), fertilizers and pesticides, untreated sewage, oil spills, dumping in oceans, acid rain, underground storage leakage.
Detrimental Impact of Water Pollution Developmental problems (heavy metals, toxic compounds) Disease (cholera and typhoid from microorganisms, also organic solvents, asbestos) Death (see above, also algae blooms and microorganism growth which deplete oxygen in lakes
Industrial Revolution Major turning point in earths ecology and the relationship between humans and environment. The next revolution: Sustainability, a Green Industrial Revolution ?
Other Resources ial_Revolution.html ial_Revolution.html ew.php?id= ew.php?id=94546