Cosmetics (from the greek κοςμητική - "having the power to tidy up" or "having experience in decorating") - "the teaching about the means and methods for improving the appearance of a person. Cosmetics also refer to the means and methods of skin care, hair and nails, used to improve the appearance of a person, as well as substances used to give freshness and beauty to the face and body. " Not to be confused with the meaning of the word "cosmetology" - "a section of medicine that develops means and methods for improving the appearance of a person (his face, body) by masking or eliminating skin defects, applying plastic surgery, etc.
Some researchers believe that the word "cosmetics" comes from the Latin word "cosmetae". So in the Roman Empire called slaves, whose duties included bathing gentlemen in baths with incense. The word "cosmetics" was first used in 1867, during the International Exhibition in Paris, where perfumes and soap industry exhibited their products separately from the pharmaceutical industry. Soon the symbiosis of perfumery and soap making turned into a separate industry, which we now call "cosmetic industry".
In the modern world, a wide variety of products are included in the list of cosmetics: Creams, emulsions, lotions, gels and oils for the skin (hands, face, legs, etc.) Masks for the face (except chemical peelings) Basics for coloring the skin (liquids, pastes, powders) Powders, hygienic powders, powder after baths Toilet soap, aromatic soap, etc. Perfume, eau de toilette and cologne Products for bath and shower (salts, foam, oils, gels, etc.) Means for hair removal Deodorants and sweat remedies Means for hair care Paint for hair, as well as for hair discoloration Products for curling, straightening and fixing hair Clamps Cleansing products (lotions, powders, shampoos) Conditioners (lotions, creams, oils) Products for hair styling (lotions, varnishes, diamonds) Products for shaving (creams, foams, lotions, etc.) Makeup products (powder, foundation, mascara, blush) and make-up removal from the face and eyes Lipsticks and lip care products Toothpastes and dentistry products Products for nail care, nail polish Personal care products Products for tanning Sunless products without sun Products Whitening Skin Anti-wrinkle products, etc.
History cosmetics The history of cosmetics as a means of skin care, little studied. The Roman physician Celsius in his books showed an active interest in skin and hair care, Plius the Younger and Roman physician Dioscorides, in addition to the issues of chemistry, paid much attention to cosmetic preparations in his works, and Claudius Galen, whose work covers many areas of medicine and pharmacy art, is also known for inventing "ceratum refrigerans" - literally, a cooling ointment or cold cream, which is now known as "cold cream". The Romans used it as a means of removing decorative cosmetics. In the scientific literature of that era, close links between medicine and cosmetics are traced. Ancient Romans were able to get rid of wrinkles with the help of knitting mixtures, wore artificial teeth, artificial eyebrows and artificial eyelashes.
The inhabitants of ancient Rome were well versed in the art of make-up. They actively used charcoal (kohl) as a dye for eyelids, fucus (focus), mostly red, for cheeks and lips, wax as a means for hair removal, barley flour and oil for removing acne, and pumice, for teeth whitening. They also dyed hair in black or light colors depending on the fashion trends. Therefore, what we are now accustomed to seeing in the form of cosmetics, that is, as a means to improve the appearance, appeared relatively recently, a little over a thousand and a half thousand years ago. Ancient Greeks - lovers and connoisseurs of fragrances and cosmetics, it was they who revived the ancient Egyptian traditions to paint the face, but not as something vital, but exclusively for aesthetic purposes.
Composition of cosmetics Cosmetics - a chemical formula, consisting of chemicals, ingredients. A single cosmetic product may contain more than 50 ingredients. Each ingredient has certain functions in the chemical formula of cosmetics. The same ingredient may have several properties. In turn, all the ingredients are divided into groups: Abrasive substances Absorbers (absorbents) Additives Anticorrosive substances Anti-dandruff substances Defoamers Antimicrobial agents Antioxidants Antistatic agents Binders Biological additives Bleaching agents Vegetable additives Buffer substance Chelate-forming dyes Dentants Substances for removing hair Emulsifying agents Emulsifying agents Emulsion stabilizers Foam-forming Foam-forming Flavors (fragrances) Hair-dyes Substances that retain moisture Contrasters Oxidizers Pigments Preservative Various gases Reducing agents Solvents Surfactants or surfactants Absorbers of UV radiation (sunscreen filters) Substances that regulate the viscosity.
When preparing the chemical formula of cosmetics, many aspects are taken into account: it should attract buyers with its aroma and consistency, be comfortable and easy to use, and most importantly - fulfill its basic purpose - to improve the appearance, give freshness and beauty to the face, body, hair, nails, etc. To meet all the requirements, a lot of substances are added to the chemical formula, which are not related to its main purpose - to care for the appearance Preservatives serve to ensure that cosmetics as long as possible retains its presentation: it does not exfoliate, does not lose consistency, does not change color and smell. The main purpose of preservatives is to prevent the growth of harmful microorganisms, which can lead to various diseases. If the composition of cosmetics includes water and fat, usually two preservatives are added to such cosmetics - to protect the water part and to protect the fatty part of the cosmetics. Only in Russia continue to use as a preservative toxic carcinogen - bronopol and its derivatives. And it is even added to cosmetics for children.
Dangerous ingredients in the composition of cosmetics Unfortunately, harmful ingredients and impurities in cosmetics are encountered much more often than we would like, and some of them represent a real threat to health. Among them, bad reputation is used: 1,4- dioxane, nitrosamines and chemicals that affect the endocrine and hormonal systems. "Gender benders" (literal translation: "a substance that can change the sex"). In a modern industrial society, a large number of chemical compounds are released into the environment, which have a negative impact on human health, and in particular on the endocrine system and change the hormonal background of the organism as a whole. These substances are called eco- estrogens. They fall into cosmetics and food products from plastic packages. Eco-estrogens are also included in detergents in the form of surfactants and antioxidants, used in cleansers, cosmetic preparations, toiletries and food products
Diseases caused by cosmetics Sensitive skin Many women who believe that they are allergic to cosmetics, in fact, suffer from irritation caused by one or a group of chemicals that make up cosmetic products. Studies have shown that 42% of women believe that they have sensitive skin. If the skin reacts quickly to the use of cosmetic products containing irritating components, then it can be said with certainty that this is a sensitive skin. Often, such manifestations as itching, red spots, and sometimes rash (urticaria), quickly pass if the affected area is washed with water or soothing lotion. Typically, the sensitivity of the skin is provoked by flavors and coloring chemicals, as well as preservatives, sunscreen filters and many others, both natural and synthetic. Allergy An allergic reaction occurs when the body's immune system reacts with a substance that does not normally cause such reactions in other people. Symptoms of allergies are: itching, the formation of tumors on the skin, rash. The appearance of simple allergic reactions can be avoided if you stop using cosmetics that cause a negative effect. Determine such funds can only be consulted with a doctor or as a result of a skin allergic test.
Cosmetical tools For lipsticks, an organic synthetic nickel compound is used as a pigment. Pearlescent effect is created by the salts of bismuthil BiOCl, BiONO3 or mica, containing about 40% of oxide. For lipsticks, an organic synthetic compound of nickel is used as the pigment. Pearlescent effect is created by the salts of bismuthyl BiOCl, BiONO3 or mica containing about 40% titanium oxide (IV) TiO2. Zinc oxide ZnO is used to create makeup. In the hair dye, dilute aqueous solutions of highly soluble salts of lead, silver, copper, bismuth, and (IV) TiO2 are used. Zinc oxide ZnO is used to create makeup. In the hair dye diluted aqueous solutions of highly soluble salts of lead, silver, copper, bismuth are used.
Cosmetic powders are multicomponent mixtures. They include talc Mg3 [Si4O10] (OH) 2, or 3MgO 4SiO2 H2O, kaolin Al4 [Si4O10] (OH) 8, or 2Al2O3 4SiO2 4H2O, zinc stearate Zn (C17H35COO) 2 and magnesium Mg (C17H35COO) 2, higher grade rice starch, zinc and titanium oxides (ZnO and TiO2), as well as organic and inorganic pigments in particular Fe2O3. On a hot day, the powder clogs all pores and causes harm!
LONDON, November 19. Every day, women impose on the face an average of 515 chemical compounds in the composition of hygienic and aesthetic cosmetics, perfumes, etc. According to scientists, the average woman uses 13 cosmetic products for the face every day, most of which contain more than 20 ingredients. Perfumery products on the average contain 250 chemicals, and in some this number reaches 400, they are transferred to "Mednostyva". The study also found that the average number of ingredients in lipstick is 33, skin lotions - 32, in carcasses - 29 and in the hand moisturizer - 11.
Some artificial components that absorb the body cause side effects: from skin irritation to early aging and oncological diseases. Richard Bence, a biochemist who studied cosmetics and perfume for three years, said: "It is vital to analyze the means we apply to the skin, and not just to proclaim that their chemical composition is safe." "We do not know what effect these substances can produce when they mix with each other. The consequences can be more serious than all the components separately, "he explains. Thus, the absorption of chemicals through the skin is much more dangerous than using them inside.