More than five billion people, speaking hundreds of different languages, live in some 200 different countries and territories of the world. They live in a great variety of natural environments.
Remember the following words which might be used to describe the landscapes. desert - a large area of sand with little plant life plain - area of level country hill - natural elevation on the earths surface, lower than a mountain forest - large area of land covered with trees ( and often undergrowth) island - piece of land surrounded by water ocean - the great body of water that surrounds the land masses of the earth prairie – wide area of level land with grass but no trees canyon – deep gorge usually with a river flowing through it coast – land bordering the sea; seashore and land near it wood - a small forest mountain range – series of mountains more or less in a line valley –stretch of land between hills or mountains often with a river flowing through it lake – large area of water enclosed by land river – natural stream of water flowing in a channel to the sea or to the lake
Remember the following words which can be used to describe the landscapes unique –having no like or equal; being the only one of its sort useless – no use; worthless sunny – adj. from sun huge – very great flat – smooth and level; even; having an unbroken surface heavy – of more than usual size, amount, force etc. extensive – extending far; far-reaching high – extends far upwards; measuring from the base to the top deep – going a long way down from the top vast – immense; extensive mountainous – having mountains fertile – able to produce much (fruit and vegetables) varied – different sorts; full of changes or variety
The photos were taken in the countries that are described below. What countries are described? How can you tell? A. It is the worlds largest island and its smallest continent. The continent is south of the Equator. Much of the land is a useless desert. Great deserts cover nearly 2, square kilometres. Most of the continent is sunny most of the year. Its population is very small (only 0.3% of the worlds population) for such a huge country. Many people live far away from towns in the outback. Severe droughts, floods and cyclones happen very often on the continent. The people suffer from limited fresh water. B. It is an island state. It covers a territory of two large islands and several smaller ones. Its coast is over 6,000 miles long. It may be a small island by Russian standards, but geographically it is varied. The south and the east of the island consist of flat plains or hills. Mountainous areas are found only in the north and west. In this country you are never very far from the coast and there are lots of seaside resorts. It has a mild climate. It is never very cold or very hot. Theres steady rainfall throughout most of the year. The main passenger ports are in the Southeast. It is a rich country, one of the richest in the world..
C. It is the forth largest nation in the world. It covers 4,500 kilometres from one ocean on the east to another one in the west. Three-quarters of the country are washed by the ocean. People live within four time zones. Its a land of physical contrasts. Practically every climate in the world is represented. The southern parts of the country have warm temperatures year round, but the northern parts of the country have very cold winters. The land varies from heavy forests to extensive deserts, from high mountains to deep canyons. If you travel across the country you would go over mountain ranges, cross hundreds of rivers, spend days on the vast, flat prairie lands. You would drive past hundreds of lakes, woods and forests. It has most of what every country would like o have – a variety of natural resources, all sorts of products and industry of every kind.
WHAT CLIMATE AND LANDSCAPES ARE TYPICAL OF WHICH COUNTRY? FILL IN THE SUITABLE WORDS FRON THE DESCRIPTIONS GIVEN ABOVE. …deserts A … climate … rainfall … lands the UK … canyons … plains … hills i s … droughts Mountainous areas typical of the USA … forests … population … floods are … temperatures … resorts Australia … cyclones A variety of natural resources … prairie lands
Australia is located south of Asia, between the Pacific and the Indian Oceans. It is a vast continent, made up of mainland Australia and of island Tasmania to the south. The Australian continent is washed in the north by the Timor and Arafura Seas and Torres Strait, in the east by the Tasman and Coral Seas, of the South Pacific Ocean, in the south by Bass Strait and the Indian Ocean. Australia is the flattest of the continents. Its most important chain is the Great Dividing Range running down most of the east coast. Other mountains include the Kimberley and Hamersley Ranges in Western Australia, the Flinders Range in South Australia. The centre of the continent is taken by the deserts: Great Sandy Desert, Great Victoria Desert, and Simpson Desert. There are few rivers in Australia. Its best known river is the Murray. The longest is the Darling.
The USA covers 9,372,614 square kilometres. It is washed by the Atlantic Ocean in the east and by the Pacific Ocean in the west. It stretches from Canada in the north to Mexico, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Gulf of California in the south. The USA is divided into three areas: Eastern area – highland, where the Appalachian Mountains are situated, Central area – plain, and Western area which is mountainous and includes the Cordilleras and the Rocky Mountains. The north-eastern part of the USA is the region of the five Great Lakes. The St. Lawrence River joins the water of the five lakes to the Atlantic Ocean. In the west of the USA there is another lake called the Great Salt Lake. The main rivers of the USA are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Yukon, the Colorado, the Columbia, the St. Lawrence, and the Hudson.
Great Britain is the name of the largest island of the British Isles and it is made up of England, Scotland and Wales, it doesnt include Northern Ireland. Geographically, the island of Great Britain is subdivided into two main regions – Lowland Britain and Highland Britain. Lowland Britain comprises southern and eastern England. Highland Britain consists of Scotland, most of Wales, the Pennines, and the Lake District. The Pennine Chain extends southward from the Cheviot Hills into the Midlands. The chief rivers of Great Britain are: the Severn, the Avon, the Thames and some others. There are many lakes in Great Britain. The coasts of England are washed by the North Sea, the Irish Sea, the English Channel and the Strait of Dover. Scotland includes the Hebrides off the west coast, and the Orkney and Shetland Islands off the north coast. It is bounded by the North Sea in the east. The Highland of Scotland are among the oldest mountains in the world. Most of the population of Scotland is concentrated in the Lowlands. Here on the Clyde, is Glasgow, Scotlands biggest city. Wales is a highland country of old, hard rocks. North Wales is a country of mountains and deep valleys. The pride of Wales in scenery is Snowdonia, a region of high mountains. Snowdon is the highest mountain in England and Wales.
Russia is washed in the north by the Atlantic Ocean and its seas: the Barents, Chukchee, EastA, and Caspian Seas; in the east by the Bering Sea, the Sea of Japan, and Okhotsk Sea; in the west by the Baltic Sea. The size of Russia is hard to imagine. A flight from Moscow to Magadan takes eight hours. Russia is a land of long rivers and large lakes. Among the worlds longest rivers rank the North Dvina, the three mighty Siberian rivers: Ob, Lena and Yenisei, and the Amur. The largest of all Russian rivers is the Volga. The three largest lakes in Russia are Baikal in the South-Eastern Siberia and Ladoga and Onega in Northern Russia. The relief of Russia is mostly flat. Its located on two plains: the Great Russian Plain and the Western Siberian Plain. There are three main mountain ranges in Russia. The Caucasus stretches from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea. The highest mountain is Mount Elbrus. The Urals extend from the Arctic Ocean to the steppes. They divide the European and Asian parts of Russia.
GRAMMAR FOR REVISION ARTICLES WITH GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES Article the is used with: names of the countries with Republic, Kingdom, States, Federation, Union: the United Kingdom, the Irish Republic; names of the countries in Plural: the Netherlands, the Philippines; names of oceans, seas, rivers, canals, straits, gulfs, waterfalls, groups of lakes: the Great Lakes, the Thames, the Gulf of Mexico; names of group of islands: the British Isles, the Bahamas; names of deserts: the Sahara, the Simpson; names of mountain ranges: the Alps, the Rocky Mountains; names of some regions: the Middle East; names of hotels, restaurants, pubs: the Hilton Hotel, the Red Lion (pub); names of theatres, cinemas: the Bolshoi Theatre, the Odeon Cinema; names of museums, galleries: the British Museum, the Tate Gallery; names of other buildings: the Empire State Building, the White House; names with …of…: the Tower of London, the Bank of England.
Names without the names of continents: America, Asia; names of countries: Canada, Russia; names of states, regions: Texas, Central Europe; names of cities, towns: Moscow, London; names of mounts, lakes: Mount Everest, Lake Baikal; names of parks, streets, roads, squares: Fifth Avenue, Hyde park, Union Street; names (especially names of important buildings and institutions) consisting of two words, the first word is usually the name of a person or a place: Kennedy Airport, Cambridge University, London Zoo.
Fill in the definite article where necessary. 1. …Murrey and … Darling are … Australian greatest rivers. 2. A number of short rivers flow from … Australian Alps and … Blue Mountains into … Pacific Ocean. 3. …New Zealand consists of three large islands: … North Island, … South Island and … Steward Island. 4. … Wellington is the capital of … New Zealand. 5. … Russia is located on two plains. 6. … Highlands of … Scotland are among the oldest mountains in the world. 7. … USA is washed by … Pacific ocean in the West. 8. … Black Sea coast is a very good place for summer holidays in our country. 9. … Alaska is the largest state in …USA. 10. The centre of the continent is taken … Great Sandy Desert, … Great Victoria Desert and … Simpson Desert. Grammar for Revision
Make up sentences from the following words, add the definite article where necessary. 1. River, in, Thames, England, the deepest, is. 2. Ocean, Sea, is, Kingdom, North, and, washed, United, Sea, Atlantic, by, Irish. 3. Can, you, forests, mountains, deep, extensive, see, in, States, heavy, and, high, United, and, deserts, canyons. 4. Biggest, on, Glasgow, Clyde, stands, Scotlands, city. 5. Russia, flat, is, mostly, relief, the, of. 6. River, Darling, in, is, Australia, longest. 7. Heavy, is, with, Siberia, covered, forests. 8. Many, from, animals, America, attract, Australia, unique, and, of, Europe, tourists. 9. Baikal, very, types, and, live, there, water, is, fish, and, many, in, clear, of, plants. 10. Lakes, people, holidays, like, spend, of, Karelia, here, who, rich, in, fishing, are, their, and, fish, many.
The geographical position of a country can explain a lot of things. Why is Australia so different from other countries? Millions of years ago, Australia was part of a huge continent called Gondwanaland. But then Gondwanaland slowly moved and formed several different areas of land. So, Australia became cut of from the rest of the world. Thats why the islands wildlife is so unique today. Probably, due to its geographical position, Australia was the last continent inhabited by the white men.
GRAMMAR IN FOCUS CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONS ПРИЧИННО-СЛЕДСТВЕННЫЕ СВЯЗИ 1. Когда указывается причина каких-то событий, действий, явлений, используются следующие союзы и выражения. А) Союз because (потому что), который соединяет придаточное предложение с главным. We didnt go to the countryside because it was raining. (Мы не поехали за город, потому что шел дождь.) Когда большое внимание обращается на причину, по которой кто-то совершает какое-то действие или из-за которой что-то происходит, придаточное предложение ставиться перед главным и тогда союз because переводится как так как. Because Australia is situated south of the Equator, the seasons are the other way round there. (Так как Австралия находится к югу от экватора, времена года там следуют в обратном порядке.) В) Выражения thanks to (to the fact that) (благодаря тому что), due to (the fact that) (из- за, благодаря тому, что), за которыми могут следовать как отдельные фразы, так и придаточные предложения. Thanks to its geographical position Australia is called the Land Down Under. (Благодаря географическому положению Австралию называют страной на другом конце света.) Thanks to the fact that Australia is situated south of the Equator it is sometimes called the Land Down Under. (Благодаря тому, что Австралия находится к югу от экватора, ее иногда называют страной на другом конце света.)
Due to a mild climate it is never very cold or very hot in Britain. (Из-за мягкого климата погода в Британии не бывает ни очень холодной, ни очень жаркой.) It is never very cold or very hot in Britain due to the fact that it has a mild climate. (В Британии не бывает ни очень жарко, ни очень холодно из-за того, что там мягкий климат.) 2. Если показывается следствие каких-то событий, действий, явлений, используются следующие союзы и выражения. А) Союз so that (так что, таким образом). В разговорной речи часто употребляются so и and so. Most of Australia is covered by four Great Deserts, so life is not easy there. (Большая часть Австралии покрыта четырьмя Великими пустынями, так что жизнь там нелегкая.) Б) Выражение thats why (поэтому). Australia is cut off from the rest of the world, thats why its wildlife is so unique. (Австралия отрезана от всего мира, поэтому ее растительный и животный мир такой уникальный.) So и thats why могут стоять вначале самостоятельного предложения. Most of Australia is covered by four Great Deserts. So life is not easy there. Australia is cut off from the rest of the world. Thats why its wildlife is so unique.
What factors explain the following peculiarities of Australia? Find the explanations in the text describing Australia given above. Because Australia was cut off from the rest of the world, it was the last continent to be discovered. 1. The seasons are the other way round in Australia because… 2. Thanks to … Australia is sometimes called the Land Down Under. 3. Because …, people have to send a radio message to the flying doctor service if they become ill. 4. Because …, the few rivers play an especially important role in peoples life. 5. …. Thats why Australians suffer one of the worlds highest rates of skin cancer from too much sun exposure. 6. …. So, life is not easy in Australia. Grammar in Focus
Because the UK is an island state, its geographical position also influences the life of the country and its people. Find the reasons or the effects of the following facts in the text describing the UK given above. 1. People go for their holidays or just on a day trip to the seaside. (так как) 2. Fishing has just always been an important industry. (поэтому) 3. When you travel to England by sea or air, it is very likely that youll arrive in the Southeast. (таким образом) 4. Britain has a rich, fertile countryside which is famous for its deep green colour. (в результате) 5. No place in Britain is more than 75 miles from the sea. (так как) 6. Great Britain has got more than 300 ports. (таким образом) 7. Fish and other seafood are very popular in Britain. (благодаря тому, что) Grammar in Focus
How does the geographical position of the USA explain the following facts about peoples life? Find the reasons in the text about the USA given above. 1. When it is 9 am in Los Angeles, its already midday in New York. 2. Millions of Americans participate in water sports, such as swimming, surfing, fishing, sailing, and water skiing. 3. Fresh grapefruits, oranges, lemons, melons, cherries, and peaches are not imported. Low-cost, high-quality fruits, juices and vegetables are available any time of the year. 4. A fast railroad train, traveling 96 kilometers an hour, takes more than 45 hours to cross the country. 5. Americans who prefer various landscapes can easily spend interesting vacations within the country. Grammar in Focus
How does Russias geography influence the peoples life? Combine the sentences using because, thanks to (the fact that), due to (the fact that), so, thats why. 1. Russia is a varied land of forests, mountains, high flat lands and fertile plains. Almost every kind of climate may be found in Russia. 2. Russia is situated in the north and far from the warming effect of the oceans. Russia has long and cold winters. 3. In Southern Russia there are the seas, beaches, and the mountains. Millions of tourists visit the South every summer. 4. Most of Russia has a more or less four-season climate. The rhythms of everyday life tend to follow the seasons. 5. Central Russia has a mild climate and rich soil. The region has some very rich agricultural land. 6. Russia is rich in forests and mineral resources. They help Russia to be a world leader in manufacturing. 7. There are many fruit and vegetable growing regions in Russia. Such items as tomatoes, cucumbers, apples and various berries are not imported. 8. Russia covers an area of 17 million square kilometers. Airplane is a major factor in mass transportation. Grammar in Focus