изучение идиостиля через символы; с позиций лингвокультурологии; презентация символов посредством разных языковых средств.
Символ - знак, который предполагает использование своего первичного содержания в качестве формы для другого содержания [Маслова 2001:88]. Символ – сложная семантическая спираль образов, архетипов и прочей закодированной в него информации [Лосев 1995:173]. Символ - идея некоторого содержания, которое служит планом выражения для другого содержания [Лотман 1996:235].
1. Описательный метод 2. Анализ словарных дефиниций 3. Контекстуальный анализ 4. Метод лингвистического моделирования
ТЕМЫ ТВОРЧЕСТВА В.В. Набокова: 1) «Судьба эмигрантов» 2) «Любовные отношения» 3) «Психологическая драма в судьбе героя»
В каждой теме исследовались символы на следующих языковых уровнях: Лексико-грамматический уровень Стилистический уровень
1 «And everything was so sad and so unnecessary that sparse un- Russian lilac in the station garden those tulip-shaped lamps in the sleeping car of the Nord Express, and those sinking sensations in the chest, a feeling of suffocation, perhaps angina pectoris and perhaps, as her husband said, simply nerves» [The Defense 1990:73]. 2 «Paris suited me. I discussed Soviet movies with expatriates» [Lolita 1984:45].
1. синтаксический параллелизм + слова-символы; 2. обособления + слова символы; 3. реже логическое нарастание + слова-символы.
1 «In a haze of sunshine – sunshine projecting in vaporous shafts between the white boles of birches, drenching the pendulous foliage, trembling in eyelets upon the bark, dripping on to the long grass, shining and smoking among the ghosts of racemose bird cherries in scumbled bloom - a Russian wildwood enveloped the rambler» [Pnin 2004:51]. (лексический повтор, параллельные конструкции, обособление) 2 «He taught Russian at Waindell College, a somewhat provincial institution characterized by an artificial lake in the middle of a landscaped campus, by ivied galleries connecting the various halls, by murals displaying recognizable members of the faculty in the act of passing on the torch of knowledge from Aristotle, Shakespeare, and Pasteur to a lot of monstrously built farm boys and farm girls…» [Pnin 2004:12]. (обособление)
1 It was more than ten years since he had been in a Russian home and now, finding himself in a house where a gaudy Russia was boldly put on display, he experienced a childish elation, a desire to clap his hands never in his life had he felt so cozy and so at ease [The Defense 1990:164]. (эпитеты) 2 «'Important lecture!' cried Pnin. 'What to do? It is a catastroph!'» «'Information, please,' said Pnin. 'Where stops four o'clock bus to Cremona?'» «'And where possible to leave baggage?'» [Pnin 2004:5]. (эллипсис, анаколуф, эрратив)
Nymphets, baba, melanic root, jigsaw puzzle, penumbra, life, beloved face, maidens, nymphic nature, muffled sobs, cat in bag, chessboards, girls nightshirt, feminine feet, infantile soul и другие. Коннотативное значение приведённых символов - «несчастная любовь».
1 «... I stuffed it with love, disclosed ignominiously its resemblance to the corresponding part in a treasured portrait of her toadlike dead mama; and presently, instead of a pale little gutter girl, Humbert Humbert had on his hands a large, puffy, short-legged, big-breasted and practically brainless baba» [Lolita 1984:54]. 2 «Marriage hardly changed their manner of life except that she moved into Pnin's dingy apartment» [Pnin 2004:35].
1. обособления + слова-символы; 2. синтаксические повторы + слова символы; 3. реже инверсия + слова-символы.
1 «While stopping his clock, jotting down a move or putting a captured piece aside he would glance askance at these motionless feminine feet, and only an hour and a half later, when he had won the game and stood up, tugging his waistcoat down, did Luzhin see that these feet belonged to his fiancée» [The Defense 1990:187]. (синтаксический повтор, инверсия) 2 «He saw her off, and walked back through the park. To hold her, to keep her - just as she was - with her cruelty, with her vulgarity, with her blinding blue eyes, with her miserable poetry, with her fat feet, with her impure, dry, sordid, infantile soul» [Pnin 2004:39]. (синт. параллелизм, градация, синонимический повтор, обособление)
1 «Annabel was, like the writer, of mixed parentage: half-English, half- Dutch, in her case. I remember her features far less distinctly today than I did a few years ago, before I knew Lolita. There are two kinds of visual memory: one when you skillfully recreate an image in the laboratory of your mind, with your eyes open (and then I see Annabel in such general terms as: "honey-colored skin," "thin arms," "brown bobbed hair," "long lashes," "big bright mouth"); and the other when you instantly evoke, with shut eyes, on the dark inner side of your eyelids, the objective, absolutely optical replica of a beloved face, a little ghost in natural colors (and this is how I see Lolita)» [Lolita 1984:87]. (эпитеты, хиазм, антитетон) 2 «The cat, as Pnin would say, cannot be hid in a bag» [Pnin 2004:32]. (метафоричная фраза)
Pain, horror, depths of chess, weariness, mother, accident, past, blackness, melancholy, tears, game, awful force, risk, Lilith, hopeless night, pubescent park, mossy garden, death, separated countries, passion, odd relief, elusive father и другие. Коннотативное значение приведённых символов - «душевные страдания».
1 «Pnin hurled the towel into a comer and, turning away stood for a moment staring at the blackness beyond the threshold of the open back door. A quiet, lacy-winged little green insect circled in the glare of a strong naked lamp above Pnin's glossy bald head. He looked very old, with his toothless mouth half open and a film of tears dimming his blank, unblinking eyes» [Pnin 2004:77]. 2 «The pain immediately passed, but in the fiery gap he had seen something unbearably awesome, the full horror of the abysmal depths of chess. He glanced at the chessboard and his brain wilted from hitherto unprecedented weariness» [The Defense 1990:173].
1. синтаксический параллелизм + слова- символы; 2. обособления + слова символы; 3. реже повторы + слова-символы.
1 «Long after her death I felt her thoughts floating through mine. Long before we met we had had the same dreams. We compared notes. We found strange affinities. The same June of the same year (1919) a stray canary had fluttered into her house and mine, in two widely separated countries. Oh, Lolita, had you loved me thus!» [Lolita 1984:97]. (синтаксический параллелизм) 2 «...he dropped out of Luzhin's world, which for Luzhin was a relief, that odd kind of relief you get in resolving an unhappy love affair. He had become attached to Valentinov immediately as early as the days of his chess tours in Russia and later he regarded him the way a son might a frivolous, coldish, elusive father to whom one could never say how much one loved him. Valentinov was interested in him only as a chess player» [The Defense 1990:129]. (повтор, обособление, градация)
1 «Ah, leave me alone in my pubescent park, in my mossy garden. Let them play around me forever. Never grow up» [Lolita 1984:76]. (эпитеты, антонимический повтор) 2 «From some kind of melancholy inertia he continued to order at dinner the same mineral water, which effervesced slightly in his sinuses and evoked a tickling sensation in the corners of his eyes, like tears for the vanished Valentinov» [The Defense 1990:130]. (сравнение)