Презентация на тему: " Features of pollution, contamination and disinfection of premises and territories in agricultural objects Prepared by Issakhanova Amina IS125R." — Транскрипт:
Features of pollution, contamination and disinfection of premises and territories in agricultural objects Prepared by Issakhanova Amina IS125R
Contents Features of contamination of agricultural sites Radioactive contamination of the ground Gassed terrain and buildings Decontamination area livestock farms and premises The use of agricultural machines and devices for the works on decontamination of terrain, buildings, constructions and premises
Agriculture According to the National Safety Council, agriculture is the most hazardous industry in the world. You can prevent injuries on farms by establishing a safe operation. This is accomplished by performing a hazard assessment. The hazard assessment means to search out and eliminate or reduce the hazards on your farm. Where a hazard cannot be eliminated, safe work behaviors to avoid hazards are a secondary method of preventing injuries. Safety training for all workers on a farm, including family members, is also very important.
Safety and Health Hazards Depending upon the crops, animals and specific farming activities, safety and health hazards will vary greatly from farm to farm. The following is a general listing of hazards or hazardous areas that may occur on a farm: Chemicals / pesticides Highway traffic Ponds Cold / heat / sun Lifting Silos Dust Livestock handling Slips / trips Electricity Machinery / equipment Toxic gases Falls Manure pits Tractors Grain bins Mud Wells Hand tools Noise Confined spaces
Tractors / Farm Machinery Tractors are the most commonly used machines on farms, and are involved in more fatal injuries than any other injury cause. Tractor roll over is the most common form of fatal farm injury. To prevent this type of injury, a Rollover Protection Structure (ROPS) should be on every tractor. Other farm machinery presents many hazards to farm workers. Entanglement in machinery moving parts is the primary hazard and cause of injury.
Animals Large farm animals are responsible for many injures on dairy and livestock farms. Bulls, stallions, and boars can all seriously injure workers. New mothers, such as cows or sows, will defend their young. Any animal being handled can easily pin a handler against a wall or fence.
Storage Structures Storage structures such as grain bins and silos have serious hazards than can lead to death. Many of these structures fall under the Confined Space regulations. Please refer to the Confined Space tailgate document for the definition of what is a confined space. Confined spaces have an entire set of rules and conditions to work in and around them safely. Stored or crusted grain in a silo for instance, can flow and lead to entrapment and suffocation. In silos, gas can form, which is made up primarily of nitrogen dioxide and this gas will severely burn lung tissues and may also displace the oxygen, leading to suffocation.
Chemicals/Pesticides Many different chemicals may be used on a farm. It is important to obtain the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), which will outline the health hazards and appropriate precautions to take to work with the chemical safely. Chemical exposure can occur through inhalation, skin contact, and eye contact. Proper storage, handling, use, and disposal of chemicals minimizes the potential exposure to animals, feed, children, groundwater and farm workers.
Child Safety on Farms An estimated 225 children die each year from injuries related to farm work. Children should be given age appropriate tasks, suitable to their mental and physical abilities. Children should not be allowed access to hazardous areas, and dangerous areas should be fenced off.
Gassed areas and buildings Persistent toxic chemicals contaminate soil, buildings, plant cover, water, feed and food insecure. Spillage drops toxic substances in the woods most of them remain on the crowns trees, but less - fell to the ground and remain there long time. In the canopy of deciduous forest is delayed more drops of poison substances than in the canopy of coniferous trees. In the area of trees and over canopy air is poisoned for a long time, affecting there are birds and insects. Getting on the soil, poisonous substances penetrate into it at different depths. It depends on the nature soil, size of droplets of toxic substances and the duration of their contact the soil.
Decontamination area livestock farms and premises Decontamination - removal of radioactive substances from the surfaces of various objects, as well as food, fodder and water. In all cases Decontamination aims - to bring the contamination to MPC. When mechanical decontamination of radioactive dust from the surfaces of objects removed cream, vytryahivaniem, flushing water, in addition, resorting to the removal of the contaminated layer of earth, snow, to filtered water, etc. Chemical method of decontamination is dissolution of radioactive dust or transfer of radioisotopes in the complex connection with subsequent removal of one or another solution. Applied physico-chemical method of decontamination, which use different decontamination solution.
Decontamination area livestock farms and premises Disinfection - Destruction of infectious agents in external environment. Possible chemical method, where the microorganisms are killed with by chemicals, physical way, if they destroy high temperature, gamma rays, ultrasound, and physical-chemical way, when, for example, combined effect of high temperature and vapor formalin paroformalinovoy chamber. livestock buildings and surrounding area is disinfected in the following order: the territory, then premise (cowsheds, piggeries, stables, etc.) at first well-irrigated disinfectant solution, after Why spend a mechanical cleaning.
The use of agricultural machines for the works on decontamination Available on the agricultural facility equipment can be divided into transportation, technological (farm) and special. Transportation equipment used to transport people, animals and material; Agriculture - for deactivation, decontamination, disinfection and mechanization of work to eliminate the effects of adversary weapons of mass destruction; special - for DPP activities on sanitary treatment of people, veterinary treatment animals of agro-technical measures for the protection of plant N other special operations. Agricultural machinery can be used to perform GO activities, usually without any additional conversion, but some machines will have to properly convert.