In linguistics, numerals (number names) are specific words in a natural language that represent numbers. In writing, numerals are symbols also representing numbers. In mathematics (including computing) there are other meanings and definitions of numbers, over the different stages of the history of science.
The terms representing numbers can be classified according to their use: Cardinal numerals: describe quantity - one, two, three, etc. Ordinal numerals: describe position in a sequential order - first, second, third, etc.; the terms next and last may also be considered a kind of ordinals. Partitive numerals: describe division into fractions - half, third, quarter, etc. Multiplicative numerals: describe repetition - once, twice, thrice, etc. Collective numerals: describe groups or entities composed of several parts - single, double, triple, etc. Distributive numerals: describe dividing and assigning in portions - in pairs, by the dozen.
Cardinal numerals Cardinal numerals indicate exact number, they are used in counting. They can be simple (1-12; 100; 1000), derivatives with the suffix –teen (thirteen, fourteen) or –ty (twenty, thirty), and composite 21-29, etc. (twenty-two, thirty-five).
For numbers above a million, there are two different systems for naming numbers in English (for the use of suffixes such as kilo- for a thousand, mega- for a million, milli- for a thousandth, etc.): the long scale (decreasingly used in British English) designates a system of numeric names in which a thousand million is called a milliard (but the latter usage is now rare), and billion is used for a million million. the short scale (always used in American English and increasingly in British English) designates a system of numeric names in which a thousand million is called a billion, and the word milliard is not used.
Ordinal numbers are the words representing the rank of a number with respect to some order, in particular order or position (i.e. first, second, third, etc.). Its use may refer to size, importance, chronology, etc. They are adjectives. Ordinal numbers are alternatively written in English with numerals and letter suffixes: 1st, 2nd or 2d, 3rd or 3d, 4th, 11th, 21st, 477th, etc. In some countries, written dates omit the suffix, although it is nevertheless pronounced. For example: 4 July 1776 (pronounced "the fourth of July... "); July 4, 1776, ("July fourth...").
Ordinal numbers refer to a position in a series. Common ordinals include: Zeroth only has a meaning when counts start with zero, which happens in a mathematical or computer science context.
Ordinal numbers such as 21st, 33rd, etc., are formed by combining a cardinal ten with an ordinal unit. Higher ordinals are not often written in words, unless they are round numbers (thousandth, millionth, billionth). They are written using digits and letters as described below. Here are some rules that should be borne in mind. The suffixes -th, -st, -nd and -rd are occasionally written superscript above the number itself. If the tens digit of a number is 1, then write "th" after the number. For example: 13th, 19th, 112th, 9,311th. If the tens digit is not equal to 1, then use the following table: 21sttwenty- first 64thsixty- fourth 25thtwenty- fifth 79thseventy- ninth 32ndthirty- second 83rdeighty- third 58thfifty- eighth 99thninety- ninth
Partitive numerals In spoken English, ordinal numbers are also used to quantify the denominator of a fraction. Thus 'fifth' can mean the element between fourth and sixth, or the fraction created by dividing the unit into five pieces. In this usage, the ordinal numbers can be pluralized: one seventh, two sevenths. The sole exception to this rule is division by two. The ordinal term 'second' can only refer to location in a series; for fractions English speakers use the term 'half' (plural 'halves'): 1/16 - one-sixteenth.
Dates There are a number of ways to read years. The following table offers a list of valid pronunciations and alternate pronunciations for any given year of the Gregorian calendar.
Negative numbers The name of a negative number is the name of the corresponding positive number preceded by "minus" or (American English) "negative". Thus -5.2 is "minus five point two" or "negative five point two". For temperatures, Americans colloquially say "below" short for "below zero" so a temperature of -5° is "five below".
Check yourself Read the numeral and name its type One by one = 12 Twice = I live in Tverskaya street 25, flat square miles Single
Insert cardinal or ordinal numeral There are ________ months in a year. January is ________ month of the year. May is ________ month of the year. There are ________ months in winter. December is ________ month of the year and ________ month of winter. There are ________ days in a week: ________ one is Monday, ________ one is Tuesday, ________one is Wednesday, ________ one is Thursday, ________ one is Friday, ________ one is Saturday and ________ one is Sunday. Sunday is ________ day of the week in England and ________ one in Russia. Monday is ________ day in Russia and ________ in Great Britain. There are ________ hours in a day, ________ minutes in an hour and ________ seconds in a minute. September, April, June and November have ________ days. All the rest have ________ except February. There are ________ days in February except the leap year. It's the time when February has ________ days.