THE TO-INFINITIVE OR –ING FORM GRAMMAR REFERENCES Balabanova Olga, school N 6, Apatity
to - infinitive The to-infinitive is used 1.To express purpose. He went to university to become a lawyer. (in order to become)
to – infinitive The to-infinitive is used 2. after certain verbs (agree, appear, decide, expect, hope, plan, promise, refuse etc). He refused to pay the bill.
to- infinitive The to-infinitive is used 3. after certain adjectives (happy, glad, sorry etc). She was happy to win the prize.
to – infinitive The to-infinitive is used 4. After I would like/would love/ would prefer to express specific preference. Id like to see the manager.
to – infinitive The to-infinitive is used 5. After certain nouns. What a surprise to see him there!
to - infinitive The to-infinitive is used 6. After too/enough constructions Hes too young to have his own car. Hes clever enough to do the crossword. Hes got enough money to live on.
to – infinitive The to-infinitive is used 7. With: it + be + adjective (+ of + noun/pronoun). It was generous of him to offer 1000$.
to – infinitive The to-infinitive is used 8. With so+adjective+as. Would you be so kind as to help me move the sofa?
to - infinitive The to-infinitive is used 9. With only to express an unsatisfactory result. She came in only to find Bob had left.
to – infinitive The to-infinitive is used 10. After: be + the first/second etc/next/last/best etc. He was the last to come to work.
to – infinitive The to-infinitive is used 11. In the expression: for + noun/pronoun + to –inf. For him to be so rude was unforgivable.
to – infinitive The to-infinitive is used 12. In expressions such as: to tell you the truth, to begin with, to be honest etc. To be honest, I dont like him.
to – infinitive The to-infinitive is used Note: If two infinitives are joined byand or or, the to of the second infinitive can be omitted. I want to call Mr Jones and fax or post him a letter.
The –ing form is used 1. After certain verbs (admit, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, consider, continue, delay, deny, discuss, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, finish, forgive, go(physical activities), imagine, involve, keep,(=continue), mention, mind, miss, object to, postpone, practice, prevent, quit, recall recollect, report, resent, resist, risk, save, stand suggest, tolerate, understand etc). They discussed selling the company. Lets go jogging ! Id rather go sailing.
- Ing - ing - ing - ing - ing The -ing form is used 2. After: dislike, enjoy, hate, like, love, prefer to express general preference. She dislikes painting. (In general) Note: Like + to-inf = its good idea I like to wash my hair every day
- Ing - ing - ing -ing - ing The –ing form is used 3. After: Im busy, Its no use, Its (no) good, Its (not) worth, whats the use of, cant help, there is no point (in), cant stand, have difficulty (in), in addition to, as well as, have trouble, have a hard/difficult time. He cant stand being treated like a slave. He had difficulty finding his way back.
- Ing - ing - ing - ing - ing The –ing form is used 4. After: spend/waste (time, money etc). He spends his free time (in) digging the garden.
- Ing - ing - ing - ing - ing The –ing form is used 5. After prepositions. He left the shop without paying so he was accused of stealing.
- Ing - ing - ing - ing - ing The –ing form is used 6. As a noun. Walking is good exercise.
Ing - ing - ing - - ing - ing The –ing form is used 7. After: look forward to, be/get used to, be/get accustomed to, object to, admit (to) etc. I am looking forward to hearing from you soon.
- Ing - ing - ing - ing - ing The –ing form is used 8. After: hear, listen, notice, see, watch to express an incomplete action, an action in progress or a long action. I saw Tim doing his homework. ( I saw part of the action in progress. I did not wait until he had finished.)
hear, listen, see, watch hear, listen, see, watch But: hear, listen, see, watch + infinitive without to express a complete action, something that one saw or heard from begging to end. I saw Tim do his homework. It took him an hour. (I saw the whole action from beginning to end.)
infinitive without to infinitive without to THE INFINITIVE WITHOUT TO IS USED 1. After: most modal verbs( can, must, will etc). You can leave now if you want. 2. After: had better/would rather. Id rather not go out tonight. 3. After: make/let/see/hear/feel + object. They made him pay for the damage. 4. know and help are allowed by to-infinitive or an infinitive without to. Ive never know him (to) be so mean. 5. But: in the passive: be known, be helped + to- infinitive. She was known to have worked as a teacher.