Alfred Nobel Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor of dynamite. Bequeathed his vast fortune to the establishment of the Nobel Prize.
Report published in 1888 by Nobel's obituary in a French newspaper of censure he invented dynamite is considered the event that prompted the decision to leave the Nobel after his death, some more valuable heritage. November 27, 1895, at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris, Nobel signed his last will and testament, according to which a large part of his fortune was to go to the establishment of an award, which is awarded irrespective of nationality.
The Nobel Prize - one of the most prestigious international prizes, awarded for outstanding scientific research, the revolutionary invention or a major contribution to the culture or society. The medal is awarded to the winner of the Nobel Prize.
Prize may be awarded only individuals, not institutions (other than Peace Prizes), and only once. Marie Curie
Peace Prize may be awarded to individuals, as well as official and public organizations.
Nobel Foundation was established in 1900 as a private, independent non- governmental organization, with an initial capital of 31 million Swedish kronor. The first prize is kroons. Currently, the premium amount is 10 million Swedish kronor. Swedish Krona Alfred Nobel
Selecting the winners perform The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute and the Norwegian Nobel Committee. The Swedish Academy
The Nobel Peace Prize - the highest award for achievement in the areas of peace, awarded annually by the Nobel Committee in Oslo
Each Nobel Prize winner is free to decide how to dispose of their prize. Some winners, funds for charity.
Konstantin Novoselov Russian and British physicist. Nobel Prize for Physics in 2010 (together with Andrei Geim). The youngest of the living Nobel laureates in all fields.
Was honored for "pioneering experiments on the two-dimensional material graphene." The money spend scientists to develop their ideas.
Jaures Alferov Soviet and Russian physicist and Nobel Prize for Physics in 2000 for the "development in semiconductor technology."
On premium money Alferov founded the Foundation for Education and Science at the Physico-Technical Institute. But Joffe.