The meaning of management Management activity is one of the deciding factors of effective work of the firm in a free market. Management is constantly being improved in line with the objective requirements of production and changes in economic relations.
Is management theory universal? There isnt a common theory of management which is useful for all times and for all nations. We have only a few common principals. But they can be a base for national systems of management with their unique features and characteristics.
Bureaucratic management German management system is based on the conception of bureaucratic rationalization which was made by Marx Weber. He thought that companies must be ruled on impersonal rational base, which he named bureaucratic. As Weber said bureaucracy is a system of running business not on a base of personal rating, but with using exact and strict instructions and rules.
German rationality The most important characteristic of the German model is rationality, which requires using the most effective means for achievement the objectives of the company.
British individualism British managers are individualistic, they are not inclined to believe that the company is a "big family. The British are more focused, closed and respectful, these qualities make the atmosphere of business relationships more formal and impersonal.
Japanese management: Our wealth is our human resources The main task for Japanese managers is to establish normal relations with employees, to form an understanding that workers and managers are one family.
Methods of strengthening the identification of the employee with the company using the material and spiritual bonuses, including considerable payments to employees for social purposes; starting every day with common morning exercises and singing the anthem of the firm; annual celebration of Day of the company's foundation.
Usual day of a Japanese manager It is usual for Japanese managers when they are at work every day, they communicate with people all the time, solve problems on the spot, systematically interview workers and experts to find out the way of production improvement.
Management in Russia For the Russian system of management is typical the situation of replication experience of both European and Asian countries as well.
The basic features of Russian management individual responsibility; clear allocation of responsibilities; strict structure of management; slow feedback.
Todays Russian managers seek to maximize profits gain power and personal benefits reach top positions in the company
Food for thought In Russia, despite having significant technical, natural and material resources, management is mostly interpreted as the art of managing people. The same we can see in Japan, which is extremely poor in natural resources.
Finally: Each country has its own characteristics of management, but the transfer of successful experience of one country to another is often impossible because there are too many differences in national cultures. A country can only adopt some aspects of foreign management, but the whole system of running business is formed independently, keeping in mind strong and weak points.