Official name - Commonwealth of Australia Status - Independent federative state within the British the Commonwealth owing allegiance to the Queen of Great Britain Area--8,000,000 sq.km. Population-- 18,284,373 million people Capital-- Canberra Language--English Area of Australias States New South Wales802,000 sq kmVictoria 228, 000 sq km Queensland1,727,000 sq km South Australia984,000 sq km Northern Territory-1,346,000 sq km Western Australia2,526,000 sq km Tasmania68,000 sq km Australia Capital Territory 2,400 sq km Main cities of Australia. Canberra Sydney Melbourne Brisbane Perth Adelaide Hobart Darwin
It is the sixth large country and the smallest continent. Australia lies between the South Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. It is situated about km southwest of North America and about 8200 km southeast of mainland Asia. The name of the country comes from Latin world «australis» which means southern. The countrys official name is Commonwealth of Australia.
Australia has several different climatic regions, from warm to subtropical and tropical. There are tropical forest in the north- east because the winds from the sea bring heavy rainfalls, especially in tropical summer. The climate in the west is very dry and more than half of Australia gets very little rain. In the south-west and east the winds bring rain in winter.
The flag of Australia is the only one to fly over a whole continent. The small Union Jack represents the historical link with Britain, the large sever-pointed star represents the six States and the Territories, and the small stars form the Southern Cross-a prominent feature of the southern hemisphere night sky.
Australia coat of arms – the official emblem of the Australia Government – was granted by King George V in The arms consist of a shield containing the barges of the six states. The supporters are native Australian fauna – a kangaroo and an emu. A yellow-flowered native plant, wattle, also appears in the design.
Australia produces everything: cotton, sugar, rice, Soya beans, wheat and fruit. It even exports chocolate-flavored milk to California and grows heroin poppies, legally, for medical purposes. For the farmers, life on the land is hard. All large sheep and cattle stations have an airfield. Houses and even tractors have air conditioning, which is needed when temperatures reach 45˚. Some outback sheep and cattle stations are huge. The largest is Commonwealth Hill in South. Australia. The animals are truly free-range and as a result the beef is leaner and the wool finer than anywhere in the world. The sheep have to be protected from wild dogs, called dingoes. There is a dingo fence that stretches 5290km across Queensland and South Australia.
The mining industry of Australia plays the important role in a national economy. Australia ranks second in its deposits of iron ore and bauxite and third in its deposits of copper, lead and zinc ores. Besides, there are significant reserves of coal, gas, uranium, nickel, titanium, gold and diamonds. These discoveries increased the in flow of foreign capital into the countrys economy. For almost a century people said that Australia «was riding on the back of a sheep», since the production and export of wool was the basis of the countrys economy. Now, the country has moved from « the back of a sheep on to a mining truck». The need (requirement) of use of new technologies is constantly increased, and consequently today the industry includes new branches of a science and engineering, business administration and marketing.
The strange world of Australian Animals There are many wild animals in Australia. Some of them such as the kangaroo, the dingo, or wild dog, and the koala, are not found in any other country of the world. Australia has been called the land of differences and the continent of contrasts. There are many ways in which it is different from other countries. The first things most people think of are the strange native animals. Early in the worlds history Australia was separated from the other continents and her animals developed differently. Of these, the strangest of all are the water loving platypus and the echidna.