Презентация на тему: " AVERTING PLAGIARISM THROUGH OPEN ACCESS IN HIGHER EDUCATION. THE ROLE OF STAKEHOLDERS ПРЕДОТВРАЩЕНИЕ ПЛАГИАТА ЧЕРЕЗ ОТКРЫТЫЙ ДОСТУП В ВЫСШЕМ ОБРАЗОВАНИИ." — Транскрипт:
AVERTING PLAGIARISM THROUGH OPEN ACCESS IN HIGHER EDUCATION. THE ROLE OF STAKEHOLDERS ПРЕДОТВРАЩЕНИЕ ПЛАГИАТА ЧЕРЕЗ ОТКРЫТЫЙ ДОСТУП В ВЫСШЕМ ОБРАЗОВАНИИ. РОЛЬ ЗАИНТЕРЕСОВАННЫХ СТОРОН Dennis Ocholla and Lyudmila Ocholla University of Zululand South Africa &
OUTLINE СОДЕРЖАНИЕ Introduction Plagiarism Open access Does OA avert plagiarism? Role of stakeholders Conclusions введение плагиат Открытый доступ О. А. предотвратит плагиат ? Роль заинтересованных сторон Выводы
INTRODUCTION The advantages of ease of access to and use of web-based information resources - ease with which these same tools can be used to plagiarize. concealed in the print only publishing environment but not necessarily easier in the e-publishing environment. such detection can be time consuming and costly if e-records are not placed in an open access (OA) environment where they rapidly appear in the public domain upon publication. In this paper, we argue that although plagiarism is still a dilemma in higher education, it is no longer obscure and has grown easier to expose, largely due to the web-based e-publication environment where access to, and the scrutiny and use of information content is escalating. Thus, open access increases the detection of plagiarism and discourages it in higher education if the stakeholders (e.g. librarians, faculty/teaching staff, higher education management, and students) roles are known and fulfilled. Оригинальность это хорошо, зато плагиат быстрее из
PLAGIARISM Plagiarism is widely understood to be the unethical use of other peoples publications, by claiming the content or parts thereof as ones own, without paying tribute to or recognising the sources from which the information was obtained, either at all or properly. the act of taking another person's writing, conversation, song, or even idea, and passing it off as your own. This includes information from web pages, books, songs, television shows, messages, interviews, articles, artworks or any other medium (
PLAGIARISM- CATEGORIES Clarkes (2006:97) analysis of the definitions and their usage groups them into the following categories: (1) publication: the presentation of another person's material, work, or idea. A precondition for plagiarism is that the new work is made available to others; (2) content: the presentation of another person's material, work, or idea. A precondition for plagiarism is that some part of the new work is derived from someone elses prior or contemporaneous work; (3) appropriation: the presentation of another person's material, work, or idea as one's own. A pre-condition for plagiarism is that the claim of originality of contribution is either explicit or implied by the manner of presentation; or the presentation may be such that the reader is reasonably likely to infer the work to be an original contribution; and
/.html (4) lack of credit given: the presentation of another person's material, work, or idea as his or her own, without appropriate attribution. A pre- condition for plagiarism is that the reader is not made aware of the identity of the originator, nor of the location of the original contribution.
PLAGIARISM - COMPLEXITIES competitive plagiarism –academic survival institutionalised plagiarism –e.g. speechwriting, beaurocratic, honorary authorship etc arguments against plagiarism Ethical – Plagiarism is morally wrong Instrumentalist –advancement of knowledge permissible! but credit for ideas/source is vital Legal- complexities of legal interpretation –theft,fraud,intentional or unintentional; Copyright – fair use or fair dealing counter arguments practicality to authors and readers –repetition, errors, common knowledge, citations clutter text the role of imitation in learning and innovation –imitation has always been important for learning unnecessary restrictions stunt learning and innovation alternative cultural interpretations of plagiarism – oral traditions, non western traditions,cultural hierarchy etc.
PLAGIARISM – HEIS Largely occurs unknowingly due to negligence, carelessness, ignorance, arrogance, and apathy among members of the academic community with respect to how to use information resources or other peoples information for teaching, learning and research, correctly or properly. Lukashenko, Anohina and Grundspenkis (2007:55) provide three reasons highlighting why plagiarism in higher education is forbidden: Firstly, this phenomenon is in contradiction to the process of learning which demands from a learner to take certain intellectual and physical efforts in order to acquire knowledge and skills necessary for the further social and professional activity. Secondly, plagiarism reduces the value of a qualification conferred by the educational institution. Thirdly, it demotivates other students to work independently and to put efforts to learning in case of impunity of plagiarism. Does not talk about teachers/educators/faculty/academics/researchers
PLAGIARISM - POLICY The absence of a plagiarism policy can be a major drawback in the fight against plagiarism in universities. a content analysis for this paper based on the policies posted on the Internet by 23 South African universities, and concluded that: the majority of the universities have a plagiarism policy. Institutional responsibility for the policies vary, but all the universities underline that plagiarism is the responsibility of all the stakeholders. All the policies target students and teaching staff, nearly all the policies include infringement penalties, detection software, marketing and publicity, declaration of compliance, and guidelines, including library guides. However, only a few policies articulated the librarys role clearly
OPEN ACCESS Budapest Open Access Initiatives (BOAI) definition of OA free availability on the public Internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the Internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited" (BOAI See also IFLA 2003).. Timeline of the Open Access Movement that was initiated by Peter Suber and taken over in 2009 by the Open Access Directory (see line), which captures and shows the enormous growth of the OA movement from past to present. line There is significant contribution to the timeline by libraries, universities, journal publishers, and professional organisations and societies. The most comprehensive report on OA content on the web is by Directory of Open Access Repositories DOAR) (http://www.opendoar.org/find.php ) and the Open Access Directory (OAD). The figures and table below provide some relevant insightshttp://www.opendoar.org/find.php
Fig 1: Proportion of Repositories by Continent Worldwide Рисунок 1: Доля репозиториев
Figure 2: Proportion of Open Access Directories by Country in Africa Рисунок 2: Доля открытого доступа по странам в Африке
Repository nameCountry Num. Recs.PubsConfsThesesUnpubOther Base URLSoftware African Higher Education Research OnlineSouth Africa OAI[Unknown] CSIR Research SpaceSouth Africa OAIDSpace Digital Innovation South AfricaSouth Africa [Unknown] DSpace at Cape Peninsula University of TechnologySouth Africa OAIDSpace DUT IRSouth Africa740 + DSpace North-West University Institutional RepositorySouth Africa OAIDSpace OpenSALDRUSouth Africa OAIDSpace Rhodes eResearch RepositorySouth Africa OAIEPrints Scientific Electronic Library Online - South AfricaSouth Africa332 SciELO Stellenbosch University SUNScholar RepositorySouth Africa OAIDSpace UCT Computer Science Research Document ArchiveSouth Africa OAIEPrints UCT LawspaceSouth Africa DSpace UJDigispaceSouth Africa OAIDSpace UKZN ResearchSpaceSouth Africa OAIDSpace Unisa Institutional RepositorySouth Africa OAIDSpace University of Fort Hare Institutional RepositorySouth Africa445 + DSpace University of LimpopoSouth Africa637 + DSpace University of Pretoria Electronic Theses and DissertationsSouth Africa OAIETD-db University of the Free State ETDSouth Africa818 + ETD-db University of the Western Cape Research RepositorySouth Africa OAIDSpace University of Zululand RepositorySouth Africa DSpace UPSpace at the University of PretoriaSouth Africa OAIDSpace UWC Theses and DissertationsSouth Africa OAI[Unknown] VUT DigiResearchSouth Africa29 + DSpace Wits Unstitutional Repository on DSPACESouth Africa OAIDSpace Table 1: Open Access Directories in South Africa
Figure 3: Content Types in Open DOAR Repositories in South Africa Рисунок 3: Типы контента в репозиториев открытого Doar в Южной Африке
USAGE OF EXISTING OA REPOSITORIES IS BENEFICIAL FOR ANY PLAGIARISM DETECTION PROCESS. Search engines such as Google, Yahoo and others provide the largest repository of OA content that is accessible to most people in the world, free of charge, on the Internet. Plagiarized information in such content can easily be detected. Brandt et al. (n.d.) notes that: OA documents are typically hidden from traditional web crawlers in so called OA repositories( Brandt et al. n.d.) generic search engines like Google, Yahoo or Bing do not cover all documents that are available from OA repositories on the Internet [and that] about 21% of the documents provided by OA repositories are not covered by major Internet search engines. The usage of existing OA repositories is beneficial for any plagiarism detection process.
OPEN ACCESS AVERTS PLAGIARISM? ОТКРЫТЫЙ ДОСТУП ПРЕДОТВРАЩАЕТ ПЛАГИАТ ? This question can be answered with both a yes and a no. It is difficult and laborious to detect plagiarism in print-only information environments where most documents are not exposed to public eyes for collective scrutiny We argue that open access increases chances of detecting and averting plagiarism. Authors take more precautions when publishing research output or posting their publications in an open access platform/space. It is also increasingly easy to detect plagiarism by using document resemblance detecting software programs such as such as Turnitin, Docoloc, EduTie, Eve2, CopyCatch, Glatt, Moss, JPlag, wordCHECK.
OPEN ACCESS AVERTS PLAGIARISM? THREE ARGUMENTS A1. OA makes it easier for plagiarism to occur (e.g. Abrizah 2009; Brandt et al. n.d). Brandt et al. (n.d) report that: In nearly all recent examples of copyright violations in scientific, academic and scholarly areas the original source of the plagiarized passages can be found on the Internet. However, detecting such cases has also become much easier to do precisely because of the internet.
OA AVERTS PLAGIARISM? THREE ARGUMENTS, CONT. A2. OA averts or prevents plagiarism, or makes the detection of plagiarism much easier. (Brandt et al.n.d.) recognise that: Freely available documents, however, bear the risk that they may easily be used by third persons without paying attention to the copyright of the original authors…. Nevertheless, the unrestricted accessibility of OA publications is their main advantage, especially with regard to copyright protection. Due to their free availability, OA documents are also well-suited for automatic plagiarism search services. internet-based resources, such as OA based-resources, make the detection of plagiarism much easier. Purdy (2005:276) explains that: Plagiarism detection services that rely on the Internet allow instructors to search for this visual proof, to test their students papers to determine if they include language copied directly from other sources. Legality of remote servers
OA AVERTS PLAGIARISM? THREE ARGUMENTS, CONT. A3. OA both increases and thwarts plagiarism. This is the compromising argument If plagiarism is easier to commit because of the Internet, it is also easier to catch because of the Internet (Purdy 2005:276). " Если плагиат легче совершить из - за Интернета, то также легче поймать из - за Интернета " ( Парди 2005:276).
THE ROLE OF STAKEHOLDERS IN ENABLING OPEN ACCESS AND AVERTING PLAGIARISM Stakeholders are the individuals or organisations involved with or affected by an activity or an occurrence. Libraries Higher Education Institutions administration Students Staff, in particular academic/teaching/research.
РОЛЬ ЗАИНТЕРЕСОВАННЫХ СТОРОН В ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИИ ОТКРЫТОГО ДОСТУПА И ПРЕДОТВРАЩЕНИЕ ПЛАГИАТА Заинтересованные стороны : A дминистрация высших учебных заведений Библиотеки Персонал, в особенности лекторы / академики / научны е сотрудники Студенты
LIBRARIANS Librarians understand that detection is not the main objective in a campaign against plagiarism. Rather, universities should concentrate on educating students as to what constitutes plagiarism and how to avoid it (Burke 2004). This view is supported by Wiebe (2006) thus: It is more in-tune with the overall vocation of librarianship to educate students and advocate awareness of why plagiarism is wrong and how they can avoid it. ……Ignorance and lack of education are enemies of academic integrity – both of which can be greatly diminished with the help of proactive librarians and other faculty working together towards a common goal. Librarians, need to examine how people interact with information more carefully and have them reflect on their interactions meaningfully – if we want them to resist the temptation to just copy and paste (Hornreich n.d. ).
Библиотекари Библиотекарям, " необходимо изучить, как люди взаимодействуют с информацией более тщательно и заставить их задуматься о своих взаимодействиях осмысленно - если мы хотим удержать их от соблазна просто скопировать и вставить " (Hornreich ND). Библиотекари понимают ", что обнаружение не является главной целью в кампании против плагиата. Скорее, университеты должны сосредоточиться на обучении студентов, что представляет собой плагиат и как его избежать "(Burke 2004). Эта точка зрения поддерживается Вибе (2006) "... Невежество и отсутствие образования являются врагами академической честности - оба из которых могут быть значительно уменьшены с помощью активных библиотекарей и других факультетов работающих вместе для достижения общей цели ».
LIBRARIES Libraries should: Provide access and support Digitize print collections and develop collections for Open Access Provide enabling infrastructure; Offer digital and Open Access literacy; develop institutional repositories; Network with stakeholders; Provide copyright and intellectual property literacy; Provide leadership for OA. Involve relevant stakeholders to succeed.
БИБЛИОТЕКИ Обеспечение доступа и поддержки Оцифровка печатной коллекции и разработки коллекции для открытого доступа Обеспечение благоприятной инфраструктуры ; Обеспечения цифровой и открытого доступа грамотности ; Развитие институционального репозитария ; Связи с заинтересованными сторонами ; Обеспечение информационной грамотности об авторском праве и интеллектуальной собственности ; Обеспечение руководящей роли в открытом доступе. Вовлекать соответствующие заинтересованные стороны, чтобы преуспеть
HEIS Installing an OAI-compliant EPrint Archive Encouraging staff to deposit their scholarly work, both pre-print and post-print, in departmental or institutional repositories Training digital librarians who may assist as proxies in self-archiving; Developing self-archiving, copyright /plagiarism and Open Access policies (see Suber 2007).
OTHERS Authors publish to be read, and are important for Open Access and averting plagiarism Sound alarm, conform to copyright conventions, launch and support OA and plagiarism initiatives and publications, and deposit publications in Open Access spaces. Lecturers/Faculties/Academics interact with publications on a regular basis in their capacity as educators/instructors/authors and assessors/examiners/moderators of students and colleagues academic and research output. They can detect, prevent, condemn and discourage plagiarism. Students are vital as well. They need to develop critical thinking and their own/original views about what they learn. They also need to learn how to avoid plagiarism by participating in plagiarism workshops which are available to them at their respective universities/colleges and comply with institutional plagiarism policies.
CONCLUSION OA can avert, prevent or decrease plagiarism and validated this with some examples We note more studies supporting this view or argument from PDS developers and providers whose work is made considerably easier and more effective when records are accessible in full text on the Internet in OA space. The compromising third argument is If plagiarism is easier to commit because of the Internet, it is also easier to catch because of the Internet. HEIs should develop comprehensive plagiarism policies that embrace the rights and responsibilities of all the stakeholders. Secondly, OA documents hidden from traditional search engine crawlers on the Internet and only accessible through institutions intranet cyberspace, sometimes with additional password restrictions, do not qualify as OA documents in the way that OA is defined. Such restricted access limits the detection of plagiarism.
CONCLUSION Thirdly, Internet based OA documents (such as ETDs, including retrospectively digitized print theses, online conference proceedings, etc.) provide growing opportunities for plagiarism awareness, detection, and prevention if documents are accessible in full text format. Stakeholders should also work together and rather focus more on awareness, education and training to prevent plagiarism, as in our view most plagiarism in HEIs occurs because of ignorance and apathy, largely among students. Lastly, plagiarism detection software tools are highly useful and helpful in OA document environments. They play a major role in the detection of plagiarism if used wisely. But the wisdom of using them is curtailed if full text records are only scrutinized by one or a few individuals, and not made available to the greater public.