Active Voice Если подлежащее обозначает лицо или предмет, совершающий действие, то глагол употребляется в форме действительного залога: The sun attracts the planets. - Солнце притягивает планеты.
Passive Voice Если же подлежащее обозначает лицо или предмет, подвергающийся действию со стороны другого лица или предмета, то глагол употребляется в форме страдательного залога: The planets are attracted by the sun. - Планеты притягиваются солнцем.
Transitive/Intransitive Verbs Переходные глаголы могут употребляться как в действительном, так и в страдательном залоге. Непереходные глаголы употребляются только в действительном залоге. Переходные глаголы - это глаголы, действие которых переходит на определённый объект (делать дело, строить дом), т.е. в грамматическом смысле они имеют прямое дополнение.
Transitive/Intransitive Verbs Непереходные глаголы - это, соответственно, глаголы, действие которых не может переходить на какой-то объект (отдыхать, работать, сидеть, жить и т.д.) I opened the door. – The door was opened by me. – (transitive) I arrived yesterday. – cannot be changed. (intransitive)
Get is used in colloquial English instead of be to express smth happened by accident. The boy got hurt while playing field hockey.
Simple Tenses Play Played Will play Is/are/am played Was/were played Will be played
Continuous Tenses Is/are/am playing Was/were playing Will be playing Is/are/am being played Was/were being played
Perfect Tenses Have/has played Had played Will have played Have/has been played Had been played Will have been played
Present Perfect Continuous, Future Continuous and Past Perfect Continuous - are not normally used in the passive.
Modals I must paint the door blue – The door must be painted blue. I should have painted the door blue. – The door should have been painted blue. !!! Mum let us go to the party. – We were allowed to go to the party.
By/with By + agent The fire was put out by the fire-fighters. With + instrument/material The jam was packed with a lot of fruit.
Questions Who posted the letters? – Who were the letters posted by? Who gave you this gift?- Who were you given this gift by?
Hear, help, make, see are followed by a to-inf. in the passive. The elderly lady was helped to cross the street. Hear, see, watch can be followed by -ing form in the active and passive. The children were seen playing in the street.
Causative ! Have something done употребляется, когда мы хотим сказать, что что-то было сделано за нас, мы не делали этого сами. Jane painted the house. (= она покрасила его сама) Jane had the house painted. (= кто-то другой покрасил его для нее)
Causative В разговорном английском можно сказать `Get something done' вместо `Have something done`. When are you going to get the house painted? I think I should get my coat cleaned.
Causative Иногда Have something done употребляется для того, чтобы показать что что-то (обычно неприятное) случилось с кем-то, с чем-то. I had my flat robbed. Shirley had her leg broken in the accident.
Present Causative She cleans her room. – She has her room cleaned. She is cleaning her room. – She is having her room cleaned. She has cleaned her room. – She has had her room cleaned. She has been cleaning her room. – She has been having her room cleaned.
Past Causative She cleaned her room. – She had her room cleaned. She was cleaning her room. – She was having her room cleaned. She had cleaned her room. – She had had her room cleaned. She had been cleaning her room. – She had been having her room cleaned.
Future Causative She will clean her room. – She will have her room cleaned. She will be cleaning her room. – She will be having her room cleaned. She will have cleaned her room. – She will have had her room cleaned.*