Russia is the largest country the world. Located in the northern and middle latitudes a of the Northern Hemisphere, most of Russia is much closer to the North Pole than to the equator. The country's 17.1 million square kilometers include one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area. Its European portion, which occupies a substantial part of continental Europe, is home to most of Russia's industrial and agricultural activity. It was here, roughly between the Dnieper River and the Ural Mountains, that the Russian Empire took shape. It is also located on the northernmost tip of Asia. Russia has boundaries with 14 countries: Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland (via the Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, the People's Republic of China and North Korea.
The economy of Russia is the eleventh largest economy in the world by nominal value and the sixth largest by purchasing power parity (PPP).
Russia is the ninth most populous nation with 143 million people. It extends across the whole of northern Asia and 40% of Europe, spanning nine time zones and incorporating a wide range of environments and landforms. Russia has the world's largest reserves of mineral and energy resources. It has the world's largest forest reserves and its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the world's fresh water.
The ruble or rouble : RUB )( ISO 4217 Code is the currency of the Russian Federation and the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. The ruble is subdivided into 100 kopeks Currently there is no official symbol for the ruble, though the abbreviation руб. is in wide use. Various symbols have been put forward as possibilities, including: "РР" (Cyrillic for "RR"), an "R" with two horizontal strokes across the top (similar to the Philippine peso sign),, a "Р" with one horizontal strike. 1 Euro =40.20 RUB 1 RUB = 0.02 EUR
Internationa l Dialing Prefix (IDD) : 0 (wait for tone) 0 National Dialing Prefix (NDD ) : 8 (may be changing to 0) Moscow ( municipal ) : Moscow ( regional ) : ISO Country Code, 2 Digit : RU ISO Country Code, 3 Digit : RUS Telephone Country Code : 7
WelcomeДобро пожаловатьДобро пожаловать(Dobro požalovat') Hello ЗдравствуйтеЗдравствуйте(Zdravstvujte) - frm, Привет (Privet) - inf Алло(Alló) - on phone Алло How are you? I'm fine, thanks. And you? Как дела?Как дела? (Kak dela) - inf Как поживаешь(Kak požyivaješ) - inf Как поживаете(Kak požyvajete) - frm Как поживаешь Как поживаете Спасибо, хорошо. А у вас?Спасибо, хорошо. А у вас? (Spasiba, horošo. A u vas?) Long time no see Сколько лет, сколько зим!Сколько лет, сколько зим! (Skol'ko let, skol'ko zim) How many years/summers, how many winters! Давно не виделись (Davno ne videlis') What's your name? My name is... Как тебя зовут?Как тебя зовут? (Kak teb'a zovut) - inf Как вас зовут? (Kak Vas zovut) - frm Как вас зовут? Меня зовут...Меня зовут... (Men'a zovut...) Where are you from? I'm from... Oткуда вы?Oткуда вы? (Otkuda vy) - frm Oткуда ты? (Otkuda ty) - inf Oткуда ты? Я из...Я из... (Ja iz...) Pleased to meet you Очень приятноОчень приятно(Očen' prijatno) Приятно познакомиться(Prijatno poznakomit'sa) Приятно познакомиться Good morningДоброе утроДоброе утро(Dobroe utro) Good afternoonДобрый деньДобрый день(Dobryj den') Good eveningДобрый вечерДобрый вечер(Dobryj večer) Good nightСпокойной ночиСпокойной ночи(Spokojnoj noči) GoodbyeДо свиданияДо свидания(Do svidanija) - frm, Пока (Poka) - inf
Good luckУдачи!Удачи! (Udači) Cheers/Good health! На здоровье (Na zdarov'e) Будем здоровы! (Budem zdorovy) - Let's stay healthy Будем здоровы! Have a nice dayХорошего ДняХорошего Дня(Xaroševo dnja) Bon appetitПриятного аппетита!Приятного аппетита! (Prijatnovo appetita) Bon voyageСчастливого путиСчастливого пути(Sčastlivovo puti) I don't understandЯ не понимаюЯ не понимаю(Ya ne ponimaju) Please speak more slowly Вы не могли бы говорить помедленнее? Вы не могли бы говорить помедленнее? (Vy ne mogli by govorit pomedlennee?) - frm Помедленнее, пожалуйста! (Pomedlennee požalujsta!) - inf Помедленнее, пожалуйста! Please write it downЗапишите, пожалуйстаЗапишите, пожалуйста(Zapišite, požalujsta) Do you speak Russian? Yes, a little Вы говорите по-русски?Вы говорите по-русски? (Vy govorite po-russki) - frm Ты говоришь по-русски? (Ty govoriš' po-russki) - inf Да, немного Да, немного (Da, nemnogo) How do you say... in Russian? Как сказать... по-русски? Как сказать... по-русски? (Kak skazat'... po-russki?) Excuse meИзвините!Извините! (Izvinite) - frm, Извини! (Izvini) - inf How much is this?Сколько это стоит?Сколько это стоит? (Skol'ko eto stoit?) SorryПростите!Простите! (Prastite) - frm, Прости! (Prasti) - inf Thank you Response СпасибоСпасибо (Spasiba) Огpомное спасибо(Ogromnoe spasiba) Большое спасибо(Bol'šoe spasiba) Благодарю вас(Blagodarju vas) - frm Огpомное спасибо Большое спасибо Благодарю вас Не за чтоНе за что(Ne za čto) Пожалуйста(Požalujsta)Пожалуйста
Where's the toilet?Где туалет?Где туалет? (Gde tualet?) This gentleman/lady will pay for everything Этот мужчина платит за всёЭтот мужчина платит за всё(Etot mužčina platit za vsë) Эта дама платит за всё(Eta dama platit za vsë) Эта дама платит за всё Would you like to dance with me? Хотите потанцеватьХотите потанцевать(Xotite potancevat) I love youЯ тебя люблюЯ тебя люблю(Ja teb'a l'ubl'u) Get well soon Выздоравливай(те)Выздоравливай(те) (Vyzdoravlivaj(te)) Поправляйся / Поправляйтесь (Popravljajsja / Popravljajtes) Выздоравливай скорее (Vyzdoravlivaj skoree) - inf a Выздоравливайте скорее (Vyzdoravlivajte skoree) - frm Поправляйся / Поправляйтесь Leave me alone!Оставьте меня в покое!Оставьте меня в покое! (Ostav'te menja v pokoe) Help! Fire! Stop! Помогите!Помогите! (Pomogite!) Пожар! (Požar!) Стой! (Stoj!) Пожар! Стой! Call the police!Позвоните в милицию!Позвоните в милицию! (Pozvonite v militsiju) Merry Christmas* Happy New Year С Рождеством ХристовымС Рождеством Христовым(S Roždestvom Khristovym) С наступающим Новым Годом(S nastupayuščim Novym Godom) С наступающим Новым Годом Happy Easter Христос воскресХристос воскрес(Xristos voskres) Christ resurrected Воистину воскрес(Voistinu voskres) - reply - truly resurrected Воистину воскрес Happy BirthdayС днем рожденияС днем рождения(S dniom roždenija) Best wishesВсего наилучшего (Vsevo nailučševo)
Education in Russia is provided predominantly by the state and is regulated by the federal Ministry of Education and Science. Before 1990 the course of school training in Soviet Union was 10-years, but at the end of 1990 the 11-year course has been officially entered. Education in state-owned secondary schools is free; first tertiary (university level) education is free with reservations: a substantial share of students is enrolled for full pay. Male and female students have nearly equal shares in all stages of education,except tertiary education where women lead with 57%. The literacy rate in Russia, according to the 2002 census, is 99.4% (99.7% men, 99.2% women). 16.0% of population over 15 years of age (17.6 million) have tertiary (undergraduate level or higher) education; 47.7% have completed secondary education (10 or 11 years); 26.5% have completed middle school (8 or 9 years) and 8.1% have elementary education. Highest rates of tertiary education, 24.7% are recorded among women aged 35–39 years (compared to 19.5% for men of the same age bracket).
Although the high price and scarcity of passenger automobiles required Soviet citizens to rely on public transportation, Soviet policy makers gave low priority to civilian transportation. Only 6 Russian cities have underground systemsMoscow, St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhniy Novgorod, Novosibirsk, and Samara. The extensive and decorative Moscow subway system, built in the 1930s as a showpiece of Stalinist engineering, remains the most reliable and inexpensive means of transportation in the nation's capital. Elsewhere, buses are the main form of public transportation. In cities, tramways supplement bus service, accounting for one-third of the passenger-kilometers that buses travel.
Russia has a continental climate which is prevalent in European and Asian Russia except for the tundra and the extreme southeast. Continental climate is a climate that is characterized by important annual variation in temperature due to the lack of significant bodies of water nearby. Often winter temperature is cold enough to support a fixed period of snow each year, and relatively moderate precipitation occurring mostly in summer.
Russia is mainly a northern country with long-lasting cold winter. The food should give us much energy and warmth to survive during the winter time. So, the essential components of Russian cuisine are the ones, which provide more carbohydrates and fat rather than proteins. Fresh fruits and vegetables are rarely used in food. So, the top five components of a Russian meal are potatoes, bread, eggs, meat (especially beef ) and butter. Other popular foods include cabbage, milk, sour cream, curds, mushrooms, lard, cucumbers, tomatoes, apples, berries, honey, sugar, salt, garlic, and onions.
Soups have always played an important role in the Russian meal. Russian soups can be divided into at least seven large groups: Chilled soups based on kvass, such as tyurya, okroshka, and botvinya. Light soups and stews based on water and vegetables. Noodle soups with meat, mushrooms, and milk. Soups based on cabbage, most prominently shchi. Thick soups based on meat broth, with a salty-sour base like rassolnik and solyanka. Fish soups such as ukha. Grain- and vegetable-based soups.
Many traditional drinks are indigenous to Russia and are not present in other national cuisines. The most notable of these are vodka, sbiten', kvass, medovukha and mors. Many of them are no longer common and have been replaced by drinks originating in Europe.
Shoes are always removed upon entering a private home (and are sometimes removed upon entering Russian museums). Slippers may be given to guests to wear. People should never show the soles of their shoes to Russians; this is considered grave disrespect. Tourists should always sit so the soles of their shoes face the floor. A small edible gift (wine, pastries, fruit) should always be given to hosts when people are invited over for dinner. When Russian people give flowers, they never give them in even numbers (even-numbered bunches of flowers are reserved for funerals). Visitors to Russia should try to refrain from smiling too much to avoid attracting attention. Americans in particular should speak a little lower than they would in their home country; Russians often remark that their American friends seem to be shouting when they speak.
Russians follow European table manners--fork in left hand, knife in right hand. Single women should avoid sitting at the corner of a table; this is considered bad luck. During train travel, it is considered polite for travelers to share all they have with the people in the carriage: food, drink and cigarettes. At outdoor markets, there is quite a bit of jostling; this is normal. When standing in line, tourists should get up quite close to the person in front of them. Failure to do so will lead locals to believe that the tourist is not in line at all. A little bit of knowledge of the Russian language will go a long way. At the very least, tourists should learn to say "Please" (Pazhalsta) and "Thank You" (Spasiba).
Religions Russian Orthodox, Muslim, other Ethnic Make-up Russian 81.5%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 3%, Chuvash 1.2%, Bashkir 0.9%, Belarusian 0.8%, Moldavian 0.7%, other 8.1% (1989) Russian Pride. Russians are proud of their country.. Patriotic songs and poems extol the virtues of their homeland.. They accept that their lives are difficult and pride themselves on being able to flourish in conditions that others could not.. They take great pride in their cultural heritage and expect the rest of the world to admire it. Languages Russian and many minority languages