Introduction:- It's new, it's different, and it's going to change just about everything. It's an amazing new Post Office. It's the biggest and best library there's ever been. It's the education of the future. It means hope, and empowerment. But what exactly is the Internet? Hardware is the short answer. The Internet consists of a few hundred thousand server computers and the telecommunications networks that connect them, using a technology called "packet- switching" that breaks up digital messages into bits, sends the bits via the most easily available routes and reassembles them at the other end.
This is why it's not instant like a telephone, and also why it's so much cheaper than using a telephone. No packet-switching, no Internet. It's a distributed, decentralized network -- nobody owns it and nobody can control it. But what most people mean when they talk of the Internet is the software. Four main kinds: , Usenet newsgroup message boards, real-time chat, and the World Wide Web, which is steadily gobbling up the other three. It's the Web more than anything else that's behind the fantastic growth of the Internet in the last eight years.
Definition: The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast array of information resources and services, most notably the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail. computer networks thatInternet Protocol Suiteinformationhypertext World Wide Webelectronic mail
Terminology The term the Internet, when referring to the Internet has traditionally been treated as a proper noun and written with an initial capital letter. There is a trend to regard it as a generic term or common noun and thus write it as "the internet", without the capital letter. The word Internet can be shortened to Net. The term cloud is also for the Internet, especially in the contexts of cloud computing and software as a service.proper nouncapital letter cloud computingsoftware as a service
INTERNET VS WEB The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used in everyday speech without much distinction. However, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not one and the same. The Internet is a global data communications system. It is a hardware and software infrastructure that provides connectivity between computers. In contrast, the Web is one of the services communicated via the Internet. It is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs.World Wide Web computersresourceshyperlinksURLs
TYPES OF INTERNET CONNECTIONS - Analog/Dial-Up - ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) - B-ISDN - DSL - Cable - Wireless Internet Connections/Wireless Broadband - T-1 Lines - T-3 Lines - Satellite (Internet Over Satellite/IOS)
Why does it matter? The Internet is still in its infancy. Let's spell it out: it's a little baby compared to what it will grow into. But already it's changing the way people work, shop; interact with each other, with society, and with the environment. Ordering something from a website and having it sent overnight uses much less energy than driving to the supermarket and back. For companies, building a website is a whole lot cheaper than building a retail outlet.
The US EPA recently calculated that energy savings from reduced construction alone arising from the growth of e- commerce could mean savings of 300 million metric tons of CO2 emissions by A recent US energy study found that, for the first time ever, energy use was falling well behind economic growth, and attributed it largely to Internet use. Previously, growth has always meant more energy and more pollution. E-commerce also saves paper -- one study predicted savings of almost 3 million tons of paper a year by 2003, saving trees, energy, and 10 million tons of CO2 emissions a year.
Modern uses The Internet is allowing greater flexibility in working hours and location, especially with the spread of unmetered high- speed connections and web applications. The Internet can now be accessed almost anywhere by numerous means, especially through mobile Internet devices. Mobile phones, data cards, handheld game consoles and cellular routers allow users to connect to the Internet from anywhere there is a wireless network supporting that device's technology. Within the limitations imposed by small screens and other limited facilities of such pocket-sized devices, services of the Internet, including and the web, may be available. Service providers may restrict the services offered and wireless data transmission charges may be significantly higher than other access methods.web applicationsmobile Internet devicesMobile phonesdata cards handheld game consolescellular routers
The Internet has also become a large market for companies; some of the biggest companies today have grown by taking advantage of the efficient nature of low-cost advertising and commerce through the Internet, also known as e-commerce. It is the fastest way to spread information to a vast number of people simultaneously. The Internet has also subsequently revolutionized shoppingfor example; a person can order a CD online and receive it in the mail within a couple of days, or download it directly in some cases. The Internet has also greatly facilitated personalized marketing which allows a company to market a product to a specific person or a specific group of people more so than any other advertising medium. Examples of personalized marketing include online communities such as MySpace, Friendster, Facebook, Twitter, Orkut and others which thousands of Internet users join to advertise themselves and make friends online. Many of these users are young teens and adolescents ranging from 13 to 25 years old. In turn, when they advertise themselves they advertise interests and hobbies, which online marketing companies can use as information as to what those users will purchase online, and advertise their own companies' products to those users.advertisingcommercee-commerceshoppingCDmaildownloadpersonalized marketing MySpaceFriendsterFacebookTwitterOrkut
The low cost and nearly instantaneous sharing of ideas, knowledge, and skills has made collaborative work dramatically easier, with the help of collaborative software. Not only can a group cheaply communicate and share ideas, but the wide reach of the Internet allows such groups to easily form in the first place. An example of this is the free software movement, which has produced, among other programs, Linux, Mozilla Firefox, and OpenOffice.org. Internet "chat", whether in the form of IRC chat rooms or channels, or via instant messaging systems, allow colleagues to stay in touch in a very convenient way when working at their computers during the day. Messages can be exchanged even more quickly and conveniently than via . Extensions to these systems may allow files to be exchanged, "whiteboard" drawings to be shared or voice and video contact between team members.collaborativecollaborative softwarefree software movementLinuxMozilla FirefoxOpenOffice.orgIRCinstant messaging
The Internet allows computer users to remotely access other computers and information stores easily, wherever they may be across the world. They may do this with or without the use of security, authentication and encryption technologies, depending on the requirements. This is encouraging new ways of working from home, collaboration and information sharing in many industries. An accountant sitting at home can audit the books of a company based in another country, on a server situated in a third country that is remotely maintained by IT specialists in a fourth. These accounts could have been created by home-working bookkeepers, in other remote locations, based on information ed to them from offices all over the world. Some of these things were possible before the widespread use of the Internet, but the cost of private leased lines would have made many of them infeasible in practice. An office worker away from their desk, perhaps on the other side of the world on a business trip or a holiday, can open a remote desktop session into his normal office PC using a secure Virtual Private Network (VPN) connection via the Internet. This gives the worker complete access to all of his or her normal files and data, including and other applications, while away from the office. This concept is also referred to by some network security people as the Virtual Private Nightmare, because it extends the secure perimeter of a corporate network into its employees' homes.remotely accesssecurityaccountantaudit serverleased linesremote desktopVirtual Private Network
Version controlVersion control systems allow collaborating teams to work on shared sets of documents without either accidentally overwriting each other's work or having members wait until they get "sent" documents to be able to make their contributions. Business and project teams can share calendars as well as documents and other information. Such collaboration occurs in a wide variety of areas including scientific research, software development, conference planning, political activism and creative writing. Social and political collaboration is also becoming more widespread as both Internet access and computer literacy grow. From the flash mob 'events' of the early 2000s to the use of social networking in the 2009 Iranian election protests, the Internet allows people to work together more effectively and in many more ways than was possible without it.computer literacyflash mobuse of social networking in the 2009 Iranian election protests
Healthy trends The Internet is changing the way we think. It's the first medium that isn't passive: Internet users are far more assertive than TV viewers, and it becomes a habit. Less and less do Internet users fit the cozy idea of communities as mere "markets" of passive consumers. As everywhere else, sharks and predators prowl the murkier depths of cyberspace, sleaze seeps through the seams, and it tends to obscure the many healthy trends. Communication is healthy -- it breaks down barriers, and with the Internet more people are communicating more than ever before: 750,000 messages a day are posted on the Usenet newsgroups alone, and and chat lines account for much more than that.
The level of cooperation, the kindness and generosity Internet groups show to newcomers and each other, the immense trouble people -- many people -- will go to, without pay or reward, to make better resources available and to help people they don't even know, all expose the "marketplace" and the idea that people are only motivated by greed and self-interest as the sheer nonsense it always was. And the levels of maturity, fairness and responsibility so many Internet groups demonstrate in their self-administration and general conduct is a strong counter to the idea that communities need Nanning authorities to tell them what to do. Most significant factor: children love the Internet. So do schools.
USES Chat room Activity allowing two or more Internet users to converse in writing in real time. E.g.:- Orkut, Gmail, facebook.etc Service by which messages are exchanged between users of a computer network. Online game Video game accessible over the Internet; users can play solo or with multiple players at a distance. E.g.:- Zapak, Cartoonnetworkindia.com etc. Home user Anyone can access the Internet from home through an Internet service provider (ISP).
Government organization The Internet has made it easy for government departments and agencies to communicate with other organizations and with the citizens they serve. Commercial concern A company that specializes in product marketing can use the Internet to contact suppliers and customers. Search Locating information on a given topic in the hope of finding something useful; it is usually done with the help of a search engine. E.g.:- Google, Bing etc. Educational institution The Internet provides teachers, researchers and students with countless opportunities to research and exchange information.
E-commerce Sale or promotion of products and services over the Internet. Health organization The Internet fosters exchanges between researchers, health professionals and patients. Cultural organization The Internet allows the public to learn about programs offered by cultural organizations in a city or region. Industry The Internet allows a manufacturer to communicate with its suppliers, customers and regulatory bodies. Enterprise The Internet facilitates exchanges between employees within the same company and between the company and its customers and suppliers. Database Group of data related to the same topic that is arranged in order and available for direct consultation by several users.
Information spreading Transmission of information about an organization, an event, a product or a topic, usually by creating or updating a Web site. Business transactions Operations involving financing and funds management (e.g., arranging a loan or transferring funds) over the Internet. Server Computer that hosts various resources (including files, applications and databases) and places them at the disposal of all the devices connected to the network. Download We can download games, videos etc from the internet. E.g.:- Zapak etc. Win We can win prizes in competitions etc. E.g.:- Zapak etc.
Search Engines A search engine is designed to search for information on the internet. Search engine presents the search results in the form of a search results list. The search results can be web pages, images, videos, and other type of files. To gather and present the searched information, each search engines has their own algorithm, or combination of algorithmic and human input. Google.com is currently the most popular and frequently used search engine. Web Browsers / Internet Browsers A Web Browser is a type of software that retrieves and presents information resources on the internet. The information resource can be text, image, sound, video, or other type of content. In a simple way, we can describe a web browser as a type of software that we use to surf the internet. These are some examples of web browsers, each with their own plus and minuses: - Microsoft Internet Explorer - Firefox - Opera - Safari - Google Chrome.
Governance ICANN headquarters in Marina Del Rey, California, United StatesMarina Del ReyCalifornia The Internet is a globally distributed network comprising many voluntarily interconnected autonomous networks. It operates without a central governing body. However, to maintain interoperability, all technical and policy aspects of the underlying core infrastructure and the principal name spaces are administered by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), headquartered in Marina del Rey, California. ICANN is the authority that coordinates the assignment of unique identifiers for use on the Internet, including domain names, Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, application port numbers in the transport protocols, and many other parameters.globally distributed networkname spacesInternet Corporation for Assigned Names and NumbersMarina del Rey, Californiadomain names
Globally unified name spaces, in which names and numbers are uniquely assigned, are essential for the global reach of the Internet. ICANN is governed by an international board of directors drawn from across the Internet technical, business, academic, and other non-commercial communities. The US government continues to have the primary role in approving changes to the DNS root zone that lies at the heart of the domain name system. ICANN's role in coordinating the assignment of unique identifiers distinguishes it as perhaps the only central coordinating body on the global Internet. On November 16, 2005, the World Summit on the Information Society, held in Tunis, established the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) to discuss Internet-related issues.DNS root zoneWorld Summit on the Information SocietyTunisInternet Governance Forum
Many people use the World Wide Web to access news, weather and sports reports, to plan and book vacations and to find out more about their interests. People use chat, messaging and to make and stay in touch with friends worldwide, sometimes in the same way as some previously had pen pals. The Internet has seen a growing number of Web desktops, where users can access their files and settings via the Internet. Cyberslacking can become a serious drain on corporate resources; the average UK employee spent 57 minutes a day surfing the Web while at work, according to a 2003 study by Peninsula Business Services. chatmessagingpen palsWeb desktopsCyberslacking  The Internet has been criticized for its Identity Performativity. Users define and label themselves on social networking sites through artistic tastes, personal experiences and relationships, and visuals (photographs, blogs, etc.). Some argue that the ability to construct a user's identity is limited by other's work and criticize the internet's lack of physical interaction.Performativity
Social impact The Internet has enabled entirely new forms of social interaction, activities, and organizing, thanks to its basic features such as widespread usability and access. Social networking websites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have created new ways to socialize and interact. Users of these sites are able to add a wide variety of information to pages, to pursue common interests, and to connect with others. It is also possible to find existing acquaintances, to allow communication among existing groups of people. Sites like LinkedIn foster commercial and business connections. YouTube and Flickr specialize in users' videos and photographs.Social networkingFacebook TwitterMySpaceLinkedInYouTubeFlickr In the first decade of the 21st century the first generation is raised with widespread availability of Internet connectivity, bringing consequences and concerns in areas such as personal privacy and identity, and distribution of copyrighted materials. These "digital natives" face a variety of challenges that were not present for prior generations.digital natives
One main area of leisure activity on the Internet is multiplayer gaming. This form of recreation creates communities, where people of all ages and origins enjoy the fast-paced world of multiplayer games. These range from MMORPG to first-person shooters, from role-playing games to online gambling. This has revolutionized the way many people interact while spending their free time on the Internet. While online gaming has been around since the 1970s, modern modes of online gaming began with subscription services such as GameSpy and MPlayer. Non- subscribers were limited to certain types of game play or certain games. Many people use the Internet to access and download music, movies and other works for their enjoyment and relaxation. Free and fee-based services exist for all of these activities, using centralized servers and distributed peer-to-peer technologies. Some of these sources exercise more care with respect to the original artists' copyrights than others. multiplayer gaming MMORPGfirst-person shootersrole-playing gamesonline gamblingGameSpyMPlayer
MENTAL IMPACT The effect of the internet on the human brain has been studied a great deal. Nicholas Carr asserts that the internet reduces the deep thinking that leads to true creativity. He also says that hyperlinks and overstimulation means that the brain must give most of its attention to short-term decisions. Carr also states that the internet overwhelms the brain and hurts long-term memory. He points out that the great deal of stimulus on the internet leads to a very large cognitive load, which makes it difficult to remember anything.Nicholas Carrcognitive load Physiologist Steven Pinker, however, argues otherwise. He points out that people have control over what they do, and that research and reasoning never came naturally to people. He says that, "Experience does not revamp the basic information-processing capacities of the brain" and asserts that the internet is actually making people smarter.Steven Pinker