MODALITY and TRANSLATION Modality is a semantic category indicating the degree of factuality that the speaker (or writer) ascribes to his/her message. - презентация
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MODALITY and TRANSLATION Modality is a semantic category indicating the degree of factuality that the speaker (or writer) ascribes to his/her message. A message can be a statement of facts, a request or an order, or s/th that is obligatory, possible or probable. Modality is the soul of the sentence. There is no utterance without modality (Ch.Bally).
3 Types of Language Units to Express Modal Relationships Modal verbs: 1) I can see the English coast already. 2) Can you hear me? 3) Why should you say it? 4) What difference can it make? Translate the sentence You should see him. Modal words and word groups: Were you really in earnest when you said that you could love a man of lowly position? – Indeed I was. But I said might. Mood forms
Subjective and Objective Modality Subjective: The attitude of the speaker towards reality. E.g.: It may rain today, he said. His companion looked at the sky. Well, it might. Commonly, subjective modality expresses evaluation and uses various linguistic means. Objective: …the attitude of any utterance towards reality ( A.I.Smirnitsky ). Modality of assertion: There are 31 days in March; of admission: Come war, come deluge…; of confirma - tion: Why! All cats are gray at night.
Translation of Modal Verbs may, might She walked slowly to the door, but the colonel stopped to say a word to a Swiss who might have been a local attorney (the function of conjecture). Is this a new edition, then? Yes, sir. The fifth. It might be a novel the way it is selling (the function of conjecture). Due to unhealthy conditions in the American fertilizer industry my health was badly injured and I might have lost my sight (the action was on the verge of happening).
Translation of will and would with a perfect infinitive 1) The reader who has carefully studied the previous chapters will have obtained a fairly good knowledge of the poets tragic fate. 2) My honorable friends will have heard the tremendous news of Cherepkovs claims to become the Mayor of Vladivostok. 3) Im sure you will have analyzed different approaches to translation of an interpreters false friends.
The usage of should in subordinate clauses Мне очень жаль, что ваша дочь так непочтительно ведет себя с родителями. Она возмутилась: да как он смеет не замечать ее! Мне неприятно, что вы так сердитесь на моего друга. Тренируйте это умение каждый день, чтобы не забыть моих объяснений.
Translation of Modal Words* Perhaps, probably, evidently, seemingly, allegedly, etc. (the attitude of the utterance towards reality = objective modality): 1) She is allegedly included in the list of those going abroad. 2) Evidently, the choice of Vladivostok citizens is in favor of the present mayor. 3) He is obviously out of town these days. * Note should be made that modal words and adverbs are several times fewer in English than in Russian. Why do you think this is?
Means of Expressing Subjective Modality By the verb of the utterance: say, tell, announce, declare, report and the like: 1) Prince Andrew is reported to elope with an Australian singer. 2) They announce Israel to misbehave towards Palestinian terrorists. 3) Mass media sources do not say anything about the fate of President Bushs cat Erny. The cat is alleged to run away and turn into a stray animal.
Translation of Russian modal words якобы, будто бы With the help of the English verbs claim, pretend, allege and the like: 1) Она сказала, что я якобы не вернул книгу. She alleged that I had failed to return the book. 2) Батька Лукашенко заявляет, что он якобы печется об интересах жителей Белоруссии. Old chap Lukashenko pretends to defend the interests of Byelorussia citizens.
Polysemantic modal words indeed and in fact Adversative function (в действительности же): He was trying to convince everyone of his innocence, in fact he was not quite sure of it himself. Additive function (более того): Whistlers mother immediately set about finding him a place in the locomotive works at Baltimore. Mr.Ross Winans, the owner of the works, was a friend, indeed a relation, and the opening was a good one.
Weasel Words Definition: in the English language these are words and expressions possessing a limiting function like Russian restrictive words and word collocations, e.g. по-своему, in a way, c позволения сказать, в некотором смысле, so to say, etc. Origin: weasel is a small predator which kills its victim and drinks its blood or sucks eggs leaving empty shells weasel words also kill the meanings of the words they stand by in this way restricting the action, its tensity, some quality or results, etc.