City basis Date of the foundation of St. Petersburg is on May 16, This day Peter I had put the Peter and Paul Fortress. In the following, 1704 for protection of sea boundaries of Russia the fortress was founded on Kotlin's island Kronstadt. Peter I attached to the new city important strategic significance for providing a waterway from Russia to Western Europe.
St. Petersburg – the capital of the Russian Empire Since 1712 the city is proclaimed the capital of Russia. As a result of fires and floods many buildings of Petrovsky Petersburg to the middle of the XVIII century came to a shabby condition or were destroyed. In 1737 the idea of three-beam development of Petersburg from the Admiralty becoming the composite center affirms, and the role of the trunk main was allocated for Nevsky Avenue. By the end of the XVIII century the population of the city exceeded 200 thousand people.
St. Petersburg – the capital of the Russian Empire In the XIX century there is a rapid development of the industry already to the middle of the 1830th years in St. Petersburg about 300 factories and plants operate. New water systems Mariinsky and Tikhvin, in 1828 the North Dwin channel open. In 1836 the first railway between Petersburg and Tsarskoye Selo is constructed. The Pulkovsky observatory, Russian Geographical society opens. On August 18, 1851 Petersburg to Moscow was left by the first train. The Moscow (Nikolaev), Warsaw, Baltic, Finnish stations are constructed. In 1885 construction of the Sea channel and Seaport will come to the end.
St. Petersburg in the XX century City of three revolutions. Civil war In 1897 the population of the city made 1265 thousand inhabitants, and by the beginning of the First World War exceeded 2 million. Russian revolution of , the First World War, February revolution strongly affected destiny of St. Petersburg and all Russia. In August, 1914 the city is renamed into Petrograd. After October revolution the government goes to Moscow, Petrograd loses the capital status. On January 26, 1924 the city (would) be renamed by the decision of the Central Committee of VKP into Leningrad.
Soviet Petrograd-Leningrad By 1920 it makes only people, but thanks to the New Economic Policy life in the city is gradually adjusted. Active housing building proceeds. During the Great Patriotic War of nearly 900 days there was a total block of the city. Since 1947 in Leningrad develop both regenerative, and hard construction works. On October 7, 1955 in the subway the first obkatochny electric train is started, and the act of commissioning of the first stage of the Leningrad underground already on November 5 was signed. In 1991 to the city returned the name St. Petersburg. St. Petersburg in the XX century
Modern St. Petersburg Today St. Petersburg - the city of federal value of the Russian Federation, an administrative center of the Northwest federal district. The population 4,6 million people. The area of the territory of the city 1439 km ² In recent years in the city many monuments are established. Are restored and restored the Konstantinovsky Palace, Saviour's temple on Blood and many other. After a long break on May 25, 1991 the church service passed in the Kazan cathedral. In 2001 Koltsevaya Highway construction round Petersburg begins, Bolshoy Obukhovsky Bridge on December 15, 2004 opens. Underground development proceeds.
Geographical position St. Petersburg is most northern of the world cities with the population over one million people. The city is located within the Prinevsky lowland, on adjacent to the Neva River mouth the coast of the Nevsky Bay Gulf of Finland and on numerous islands of the Nevsky delta. City height above sea level: for the central areas 1 5 m. The highest place within the city Dudergofsky heights near the Red Village with the maximum height of 176 m. High-altitude position of the city the phenomenon of the white nights speaks.
City economy St. Petersburg one of the most important economic centers of the Russian Federation. The city economy is based generally on the industry and tourism. Basis of the industry of St. Petersburg the heavy industry. St. Petersburg the largest Russian center of military and civil shipbuilding and ship repair. The instrumentation, production of optics, electrodevices and electronic equipment is also developed the machine. Considerable industrial output is formed by the enterprises of branch of production of arms. The essential role in a city economy is played by travel business. In 2005 St. Petersburg was visited by about 2,18 million foreign tourists.
Peter and Paul cathedral The oldest temple of St. Petersburg is the Pete and Paul cathedral. The church for the sake of Apostles Peter and Pavel was put in a month after the city basis, on June г. and on April г. it was completed and consecrated for the sake of Sacred Apostles Peter and Pavel. Originally it was the wooden church, with 1712г. on its place construction of a stone Peter and Paul cathedral according to the project of the architect of D. Trezini began. Construction proceeded 21 years, and only in 1733г. the cathedral was consecrated at empress Anna Ioanovna. The many-tier belltower of a cathedral is topped with a spike which comes to the end with a weather vane in the form of a figure of a flying angel with a cross. Height of a cathedral of 122,5 meters, height of a figure of an angel of 3,2 meters, and scope of his wings of 3,8 meters.
"Bronze Horseman" (monument to Peter I) On a plan of the sculptor as the basis of a monument the natural rock serves in a wave mode. The form of a wave serves as a reminder on what Peter I deduced Russia to the sea. The granite monolith was found in the district of Lahta, in twelve versts from St. Petersburg. Once, according to local legends, the lightning got to the rock, having formed in it a crack. Among locals the rock called "Thunder stone", and began to call then it when established on the bank of Neva under the well-known monument. Monolith weight about 1600 tons. Delivered the rock to the destination of 9 months, on the barge. During transportation of ten masons gave it a necessary form. It arrived to Senate Square on September 26, 1770.
Aleksandrovsky column The idea of installation of a monument in honor of a victory of Russia over Napoleon with a thankful inscription to emperor Alexander I arose even at his reign. Alexander didn't support this idea. In 1819 when Charles Rossi started to project a building of the General Staff, he developed also the project of an accomplishment of all territory adjoining to it. The architect planned to decorate Palace Square with a big obelisk. The project of a monument was accepted already at Nikolay I in 1829, work was charged not to Rossi, and August Montferrand.