General information Флаг Великобритании. Official name - the United Kingdom of great Britain and Northern Ireland The Capital Is London Form of government - constitutional monarchy The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II. Area sq.m Population (2001) Population density persons per sq. m Population growth - 0,2% Life expectancy is 74(male); 79 (female) Languages - English, Welsh Literacy : 99% The currency is the pound sterling (1 US dollar = 0,69 pounds
United Kingdom of great Britain and Northern Ireland, the state is in Western Europe. Located in the British Isles are separated from continental Europe by the North sea, the Straits Pas-de-Calais and the channel. Separate position has influenced the historical development of the country.. geographical location
It consists of England, Scotland and Wales, located on the largest island of great Britain and Northern Ireland occupies the Northern part of the second largest island of Ireland. The Isle Of Man, located in the Irish sea between these two Islands, channel Islands form an independent administrative unit.
relief The territory of the United Kingdom on the topography is divided into two main areas. High UK (including Northern Ireland), located on the North and West of the country, sustainable underlain by ancient indigenous breeds and represents mainly the highly dissected upland and several mountain areas; at its base lie younger sedimentary rocks. The boundary between the High and Low Britain takes place approximately in the South-Western direction from Newcastle in the mouth of the R. Secrets to Exeter at the mouth of the R. of Former South Devon. This boundary is not always clear-cut, and often the transitions between High and Low Britain chlazeny General, the relief of the country is so diverse that driving in one direction more than an hour, crossed by several different landscapes.
Britain is washed by the Atlantic ocean and its seas. In the West coastline longer than its, due to the strong irregularity of the banks. Although the length of the main island from North to South exceed 965 km, and from West to East km at its widest point, the total length of coastline, including Islands and small bays, nearly 8000 km, of which most part is necessary on the West coast. The share of Eastern Bank of England has just 1030 km, while the share of Western together with Wales km. water resources
To the North of Scotland stretches across the Pentland Firth, separating the Orkney Islands from the main island. Further to the North-East, about 485 miles from Norway, are Shetland Islands. On the South coast there are good natural harbour, such as Falmouth and Plymouth.
Речные порты Главные порты Северной Ирландии – Белфаст, к которому подходит залив Белфаст-Лох, и Лондондерри, к которому подходит залив Лох- Фойл. Другие береговые бухты – Странгфорд-Лох, Дандрам и Карлингфорд-Лох – находятся в округе Даун. Основные реки – Фойл с притоками, Эрн, дренирующий озера Аппер-Лох-Эрн и Лоуэр-Лох- Эрн, Банн, нижнее течение которого разделяет Антрим и Лондондерри, и Лаган,разделяющий Антрим и Даун. Навигация осуществима лишь на небольших участках в низовьях Фойла и Лагана.
River channels In addition to natural waterways have been dredged in the lower Clyde and mercy, and built an extensive network of canals, especially in England, between North Midlands and the Thames valley. Kalidonskogo canal connects Inverness and Fort William in the basin of the great Glen, another channel connects the bays of the Firth of Clyde and the Firth of forth in Scotland. In England, built canals between the rivers Dee and mercy, mercy and er, the Trent and Mersey, Avon (a tributary of the Severn) and Welland and the Thames and Severn.
The absolute height. The highest mountains are in the Scottish highlands. The mountain is Ben Nevis, located near the upper reaches of Loch linnhe, rises to 1343 m above the. m, and at the intersection of the Grampian highlands and mountains some peaks exceeding 1200 M. the highest point of the South of the Scottish highlands, Merrick (m), the Height, The-Cheviot in Northumberland 815 m, the Highest point in England, SKO fell in Cumberland mountains reaches 978 m
Pennine mountains in the East Cambrian rise to 893 m Height, Snowden in Guinea 1085 m above the. M. Dartmoor in South Devon reaches a height of 621 m above the. M., and Exmoor in Somerset m In low Britain there are no high mountains. The height of the ridge Cotswold hills in Gloucestershire 314 m (Cleve-cloud), ridges of the Mendip hills m (black Dawn); the Chiltern hills in Oxford and Buckingham not more than 259 m, within ridges of West downs, North downs and the South downs no points higher than 305 m, with one exception - Inkpen beacon in West- Downs (308 m).
climate, The climate of the United Kingdom temperate, oceanic and humid. The temperature rarely rises in summer days above 29S or decreases in winter night below-7C. The mildness of its climate is mainly due to the influence of the North Atlantic current (continuation of the Gulf stream)that brings warm water to the West coast of Europe. In these latitudes prevailing westerly flow of the winds, and thus, from the Atlantic ocean in the summer comes cool, and in the winter the warm air.
precipitation, On the West coast, rainfall is 3000 mm per year, and on the East coast of 600 to 750 mm is often cloudy weather, because most of the precipitation falls as constantly drizzling rain, and no rain, and the sun does not appear for many days in a year. The shortage of sunlight depends more on overcast than from the mists. Famous last London fog enveloped the city because of the thick smoke from burning coal for heating, not due to meteorological conditions. However damp damp mist still recorded in London on average 45 days in a year.
fauna Among the fauna in England are: deer, Fox, rabbit, hare, badger. Among birds partridge, dove, crows and other Reptiles, which all British Isles, only four types, in England rare. In the rivers of the region are inhabited mainly salmon and trout. Most common in Scotland deer and ROE deer, small mammals see the hare, rabbit, weasel, otter, wild cat. A large number of quails and wild ducks. The coastal waters are caught cod, herring, picma. The fauna of Wales almost the same as in England, with the exception of the black polecat and the forest of konnitsy that in the UK are not found.
flora,. The vegetation of England is quite poor, forests cover less than 4% of the territory and region. The most common oak, birch, pine. In Scotland forests are more common. Mostly in forests, oak and pine trees. In Wales mostly deciduous forests:ash, oak. In mountain areas spread coniferous trees. The main vegetable formation in the UK - the heathland. They account for about 1/ 3 of the country's area and a large part of Northern Ireland. Here there are moorlands with the domination of Heather plain,bent, moliniya blue, Belous sticking out, reed and rush, growing more humid lands
people, Fertility and mortality. During the 1970s, the fertility rate has decreased and reached the level of mortality. However, in subsequent years, the birth rate is slowly increased. The age structure of the population. In the 1980's the share of children up to 16 years of age accounted for only 22%, the share of the population of active age was only 63%. Older people, especially in the age category after 85 years, considerably increased its share in the total population. Their number has grown in absolute values. Today lives in Britain 9 million Britons whose age is equal to or higher than 65 years.
Собор Св. Павла Population distribution and density. Approximately 90% of the population lives in the city, more than one resident of three lived in one of the eight urban regions, which the British called the "big cities" (i.e. cities with suburbs). Each such sprawl occurs on the basis of large cities; with the exception of London, all of them are located close to major coal basins. Religion. The official Church in England is the Anglican Church, with 26 million members. Official Scottish Church is organized by the Presbyterian principle and unites 1 million believers. Other Protestant churches, of which the biggest Methodist, numbered 1.6 million believers. There are also about 5 million adherents of the Roman Catholic Church, 830 thousand Muslims and 400 thousand of the Jews.
Britain is the birthplace of the Industrial revolution In the late 18th century Britain was the first industrial power in the world, and in the 19th century it was producing more manufactured goods than any other country; it was also the chief trader, a carrier, a banker and investor in the global economy. However, in the early 20th century industrial strength of the British economy was based only on a few sectors. Coal production, textiles, iron and steel accounted for nearly half of all revenues of the industry. The important role played shipbuilding, railway equipment and other heavy machinery, tied to coal mining and steel production.
The leading branches of industry production of oil, natural gas, coal black and nonferrous metallurgy engineering chemical industry (production of plastics and synthetic resins, chem. fibers minutes fertilizer) textile industry (production of cotton fabrics) food industry the main branch of agriculture - dairy and meat and dairy farming in crop production dominates grain farming
interesting places The UK is the birthplace of modern comfort, sport, aristocratic lifestyle. Having been on the banks of "foggy Albion" forever falls in love with this country. Most often tourists visit London, Stratford-upon Avon, Oxford, York, Edinburgh, Canterbury.
. В последние десятилетия суровые пейзажи Шотландии тоже нашли своих ценителей, особенно среди любителей рыбной ловли. Традиционные курорты – Бат, остров Уайт. Острова Джерси и Гернси являются настоящими заповедниками старины, совмещенной с современным уровнем комфорта. Среди самих англичан на первом месте – поездки в Озерный край.
Popular routes through the gardens and parks, castles. Historic castles are often located far from cities. Their majority is held by the so- called National trust which supports attractions in the order and excursions. Access of tourists is open all the locks. Art lovers are always welcome at the national gallery and portrait gallery. Royal Museum, museums of modern history - will also be interesting
Вестминстерское аббатство. Among a wide variety of monuments of culture and history in London, especially the famous Westminster Abbey, St. Paul's main Protestant Cathedral of the capital, castle tower (XI-XIV centuries), a medieval fortress served as a prison for political offenders. In London, about 80 theatres, more than 30 museums. The undoubted attraction of the city is the oldest subway in Europe, which opened in The capital affects the abundance of parks, the most famous of which Hyde Park, Regents Park with the zoo, Kew Hadnt with Conservatory, an aquarium and a butterfly House".
. Nelson's column in Trafalgar square Trafalgar square is the main square in London, where measured the distance to all parts of the country. In Glasgow interesting St. Mungo (1136-ser. XV century), the Museum of Glasgow, art gallery, Botanical gardens and the zoo. The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh's famous magnificent castle, the Church of St. Margarita (XI century), the castle, castle Rock, Royal residence in Scotland (Palace Holyrood). Very beautiful Church. Gilles (XV C), the Scottish Parliament (1639), a Protestant house of the Parliament of the XVI century, John Nonce.