2 EURO III vs EURO IV Developmental target for emission EURO-4 emission reduction potential compared with EURO-3 - PM : 50 % decrease - NOx : 50 % decrease Developmental target - 70 % of regulation EURO-4 Availability - New model : JAN Existing vehicle : JAN.2006 HC+ N0x (g/km) PM (g/km) EURO-3 (regulation) EURO-4 (regulation) EURO-4 (target) 0.0
3 SCV(Swirl Control Valve) λ sensor CPF Diff pressure & Temp sensor ACV(Air Control Valve) 2 nd GEN CRDi system Injection Pressure : bar ECU : bit 2 nd GEN CRDi system Injection Pressure : bar ECU : bit Water cooled EGR (electrical control) EURO-IV corresponding technology
4 Comparative table ( EURO-III vs EURO-IV) ItemsEURO-IIIEURO-IVRemark Emission regulation CO 0.64g/km0.50g/km Nox 0.50g/km0.25g/km HC 0.56g/km0.30g/km PM 0.05g/km0.025g/km soot 15%10% ECM Speed 16 bit CPU32 bit CPU Pins Location InternalEngine room Depending on vehicle Λ(Oxygen) sensor X For EGR control CPF(Catalyzed Particulary Filter) X U-Eng- Reduce PM D-Eng CPF Diff pressure & temp sensor XU-Eng- Detect internal pressure & temp XD-Eng SCV(Swirl Control Valve) X Reduce smoke during low-mid Fuel temp sensor X Rail pressure control MPROM Inlet control – A, J Eng PCV(Pressure Control Valve) X Outlet control – D Eng InjectorMulti-injection1 Pilot, 1 Main2 Pilot, 1 Main,2 PostD-Eng: 2 Post injection Pressure250~1350bar250~1600bar typeClassfied (C1,C2,C3)7-code (IQA) Throttle flap controlControl timeKey off (NVH reduced) -Key off (NVH reduced) -always (support EGR) Close the throttle when a key is off to prevent from dieseling. wayON/OFFPWM control (300Hz)
5 EngineD-2.0 CRDiD-2.2 CRDi shape displacemnet 1,991 cc2,188 cc PS 125 PS153 PS Torque 29.0 kg·m35.0 kg·m Bore x stroke 83×9287×92 Features BOSCH 1 st GEN Fuel pressure control - Outlet control - 1,350bar BOSCH 2 nd GEN Fuel pressure control - Inlet & outlet control - 1,600bar Swirl Control Valve Air Control Valve Catalyzed Particulate Filter - Euro D-2.0L vs D-2.2L
6 Input / output (EURO-III and EURO-IV) APS 1, 2 Brake, clutch S/W CKPS & CMPS Boost pressure&temp sensor Fuel pressure sensor HFM5/HFM6 WTS, AFS Blower, A/C S/W Rail pressure control EGR control Cooling fan control PTC control Glow plug control Injection BOSCH ECM EURO-III EURO-IV BOSCH ECM EURO-III EURO-IV SCV control ACV control CAN/K-line A/C comp relay MIL/glow lamp A/C S/W λ sensor shadow=> EURO4 inlet Fuel temp sensor DPF diff & temp sensor outlet
7 type Injection timing Purpose Max advancedMax retard Pilot2BTDC 100 o SOE(Pil1)+150 μs + ET(Pil2)starting Pilot1BTDC 100 o SOE(MI) μs + ET(Pil1) Reducing smoke NVH MainBTDC 40 o ATDC 10 o Improving torque Post2 SOE(MI) + ET(MI) μs ATDC 40 o Increasing CPF temp Post1ATDC 40 o Next cylinder max. advanced Activate oxidation catayst (burning soot) regeneratio n [500 ] Burning un burned HC Starting Noise.vibrati on EURO-IV injection SOE (Start Of Energizing) ET (Energizing Time)
8 Burning procedure for diesel engine Flame depending on pilot injection or not Without pilot injection With pilot injection Injection volume : 7mg Fuel pressure : 1000bar RPM : 1000rpm Injection timing : BTDC 22
NOxPM * PM : Particulate Matter Heart of aftertreatment is reducing Nox & PM Diesel exhaust gas
11 What is PM (Particulate Material or Matter) Specialty Definition: PARTICULATE MATTER Energy Unburned fuel particles that form smoke or soot and stick to lung tissue when inhaled. A chiefcomponent of exhaust emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines. (PM). Environment Dust, soot, other tiny bits of solid materials that are released into and move around in the air. Weather (PM) Solid particles or liquid droplets suspended or carried in the air (e.g., soot, dust, fumes, mist). Very small pieces of solid or liquid matter, such as particles of soot, dust, aerosols, fumes, or mists.
12 Components of PM SOL (Solid fraction) : elemental carbon / ash SOF (soluble organic fraction) : organic material from engine oil and fuel Absorbed Hydrocabons Sulfate : sulfate acid / water Soot(carbon material) The main component of PM is the unburned carbon solid particleof 15-30nm diameter, gas phase-from fuel and partly from lubricant, and all named as fines, dust, soot, mist, fog, and smog are a part of PM.
13 Kinds of catalystic converter depending on location MCC (Manifold Catalytic Converter) CCC (Close-Coupled Catalytic Converter) WCC (Warm-up Catalytic Converter) UCC (Under-floor Catalytic Converter) Components of catalystic converter Washcoat : Washcoat : coating material including catalyst. Mainly Al 2 O 3 is used. Substrate : Substrate : honeycomb shape which is coated by washcoat. Exhaust gas pass through this. Effect of reducing exhaust gas is different depending on shape or thickness of substrate. Support : Support : support the substrate by using STS wire or matt. MCC CCC WCC UCC Catalystic converter terms
15 Pd : Pd : Purify HC mainly. Thermal resistance is good. Using in CCC using as Pd only or Pd-Rh Pt : Pt : Purify CO, Nox mainly. Thermal resistance is lower than Pd using in UCC using as Pt-Rh or Pd-Pt-Rh Rh : Rh : purify Nox mainly.price is much higher than Pd, Pt Cost change of precious metals Precious metals for vehicle
16 Selective Catalyst Poisoning Catalyst Fouling Catalyst SinteringWashcoat Sintering Selective Catalyst Poisoning poisoning by Pb, Hg, Cd deactivation by SO 2 recovery by thermal treatment, washing Catalyst Fouling nonselective poisoning, masking by P (engine oil) Poisoning Thermal Deactivation Catalyst Sintering sintering, cohesion of precious metals using Stabilizer CeO 2, La 2 O 3 Washcoat Sintering using Stabilizer BaO, La 2 O 3, SiO 2, ZrO 2 Catalyst Deactivation Mechanism
18 PM reducing device CPF (Catalyzed Particulate Filter) DPF+Additive (Diesel Particulate Filter) CRT (Continuously Regenerating Trap) Burning a soot by post injection & oxidating a soot by using activation of coated catalyst (using NO 2 ) Simple system (no special fuel adding device) need a strategy of controlling regeneration temp. Problem (recovery of waste DPF & cleaning) Burning the soot by post injection & cerium-based additive(around 450, at every 500km forced regeneration ) sophistcated system(fuel adding device) Problem (lots of CO emission) Burning the soot continuously by oxidated NO 2 (through DOC), without post injection On the testing at bus(LONDON) impossible to adapt to passenger vehicle (exhaust gas temp is too low) adapted to almost European passenger diesel Peugeot, Volkswagen, FORD adapted to commercial diesel Oxidatio n Catalyst Particulate Filter PM reducing device
19 Efective to reduce CO/HC and SOF (SO2 is changed to sulfate)) ** SOF(Soluble Organic Fraction) PAH(polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) Sulfate Soot SOF, PAH Sulfate Soot SOF, PAH PM Washcoat Monolith Soot SOF Sulfate SO 2 Sulfate Soot H 2 O+CO 2 Sulfate Heating DOC (Diesel Oxidation Catalyst)
20 Principle (1) Trapping the PM(Particulate Material) (2) Burnig the trapped PM at regular driving distance (Increasing a PM burning temp. over 550 ) (3) Ash is accumulated in a filter Some maker have a separate Service strategy (Peugeot 607 : repairing the filter from peugeot company at 80,000km free of charge Developmental background (1) Correspond to EURO- 4 emission regulation Reducing Nox : by electrical EGR & EGR cooler Reducing PM : by DOC & filter CPF (Catalyzed Particulate Filter) WHAT IS CPF?
21 C(soot) + NO 2 CO/CO 2 + NO NO + O 2 NO 2 C(Particulate) + O CO/CO CO + O 2 CO 2 (CO from soot) HC,CO + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O (residual gaseous HC,CO) NO 2 turn over : ( by using NO 2 2~4 C burning ) CPF passive soot regeneration ** Passive : without any additive mechanism Active : with additive mechanism (post injection)
22 CPF active soot regeneration Increasing temp. of exhaust gas through post injection and DOC burning soot
23 Filter Squre pillar Filter DOC Temp sensor temp sensor Pipe for diff pressure sensor Filter: Trapping & regeneration DOC: Improve condition of PM regeneration Temp sensor: checking the temp for regeneration Diff pressure sensor: decide a regeneration (detecting the loss pressure) Shape & structure
24 CRDi ECU DOC Pressure /temp sensor Post injection Fuel pump High pressure pump CRDi ENG Exhaust gas Catlystic filter PM accumulated & burning System overview
25 1. Accumulating ash DOCCatlayst filter Catlalys t coating C Gas C C C C C C C C C Regeneration procedure
26 sensorECUINJ pump HC 2. Increasing exhaust pressure & post injection C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Regeneration procedure
27 ` C C C C C C HC O2 CO2+Heat O2 C C C C C C C C C C C C 3. PM regeneration Exhaust temp is increased by post injection PM is regenerated and filter temp is increasing DOC adjust the exhaust temp (regeneration temp) Regeneration procedure
28 4. re-accumulating ash Ash is accumulated by unburned fuel/oil How fast ash is accumulated in the filter that is point Regeneration procedure
29 KM & JM exhaust system overview Diff pressure sensorTemp sensor Air gap insulator pipe Main muffler DOC + CPF
30 Regeneration mode condition Drving distance: every 1,000km Engine RPM: 1,000RPM ~ 4,000RPM Engine load: around 0.7bar( over 8mg/st ) Vehicle speed : over 5km/h Water temp : over 40 Notice) shock or noise may occurred by changing torque during regeneration CPF regeneration condition
32 Judgement regeneration - 1 Using CPF diff pressure caculate volume of PM - Diff pressur: when PM is stored make a differential pressure - ECU decide time of regeneration DOC + CPF Diff pressure sensor Detect the differential pressure between inlet and outlet CPF aftertreatment procedure
34 Judge by driving distance - Every 1,000km, ECU decide regeneration Maybe regeneration is going because 1000km is over 0km1,000km2,000km3,000km CPF aftertreatment procedure Judgement regeneration - 2
35 Predict the volume of PM by using simulation Detect the volume of accumulated PM depending on driving condition Detect the volume of accumulated PM and burned PM CPF aftertreatment procedure Judgement regeneration - 3
37 Burning PM by increasing temp up to 550 ~600 Regeneration Inter cooler ACV (Air control valve) EGR valve EGR cooler T/C PilotPreMainPost-2Post-1 AFS Increasing by catalyst 200~300 Increasing temp 300~400 Regeneration temp 600~650 + = Increasing exhaust temp by post-injection CPF aftertreatment procedure
38 CPF component Differential pressure sensor Diff sensor Diff pipe CPF output(V) pressure(kPa) Detect the diff pressure between CPF inlet(upstream) and outlet(downstream) Diff pressure 20~30kPa(200~300mbar) regeneration start Output voltage: 1V ~ 4.5 V
39 CPF component Exhaust temp sensor Monitoring the regeneration temp.(Obtain ignition temperature in particulate filter) Temp sensor-1: protect VGT, located in exhaust gas Temp sensor-2: feedback for regeneration Temp sensor-2 CPF Temp sensor-1 VGT
40 Adapted vehicle : D-RS, D-JM, D-KM, D-NF, D-MG, D-UN, D-CM AT, D-TG AT, D-FO, U-FC AT 2007 EUR DOM section NF MG FC AT UN RS NF MG TG PO TG CM FO JM KM (2M T 2AT) 2 12 CM FO EURO4 UN FMC F/L R/C 9 JM KM (2MT2AT4MT) Plan for CPF Notice) Plan is changeable 9 FC MT JM KM (4MT)
42 EURO-IV Additional MENU for CPF T3/T5 temperature CPF service regeneration by Hi-scan
43 Component change routine (ECU change) INPUT THE CURRENT ODO VALUES IN CLUSTER TO COUNT THE DRIFT SOOT VALUE INFORMATION OF CPF km REFER TO PREVIOUS MENU TO SEE INJECTOR INFORMATION. PRESS [ENTER] KEY. Notice) If you change some parts related CPF you should do this procedure.
44 IN THIS MODE, CAN RESET THE DISTANCE OF LAST CHANGED CPF AND OTHERS RELATED PARAMETERS. PRESS [ENTER] KEY. Component change routine (CPF change) Notice) If you change the CPF then should reset the distance of last changed CPF. Other related parts are same procedure(Lambda sensor, RPS, AFS, Diff sensor SCV).
45 Current data SCV & ACV actuator Outlet & inlet pressure sensor T3 & T5 temp sensor
51 Injection correction (IQA) CONDITION:IG.KEY ON(ENGINE STOP) 1. IF THE INJ IS CHANGED, THE INJ CORRECTION FUNC. SHOULD BE PERFORM TO CONTROL. THE NORMAL FUEL INJ. 2. TO INPUT THE INJECTOR NUMBER,PRESS SHIFT KEY AND SELECT THE CYL. BY ARROW KEY AT THE SAME TIME, AND INPUT THE INJ DATA BY [F1]~[F6], DIGIT KEY. AND THEN PRESS [ENTER]. 3. AFTER COMPLETE, TURN THE IG.KEY OFF AND RECHECK THE SYSTEM AFTER 10 SEC. Enter the 7-digit code