Презентация на тему: " THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENGLISH REALISTIC NOVEL. HENRY FIELDING. THE SENTIMENTALISTS. Lecture 16 Трякина Светлана Анатольевна, ГОУ СОШ 1232, г. Москва." — Транскрипт:
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENGLISH REALISTIC NOVEL. HENRY FIELDING. THE SENTIMENTALISTS. Lecture 16 Трякина Светлана Анатольевна, ГОУ СОШ 1232, г. Москва
The foundations of early bourgeois realism were laid by Daniel Defoe and Jonathan Swift, but their novels, though of a new type and with a new hero, were based on imaginary voyages and adventures supposed to take place far from England. Gradually the readers tastes changed. They wanted to find more and more of their own life reflected in literature, their everyday life of a bourgeois family with its joys and sorrows.
These demands were satisfied when the great novels of Samuel Richardson, Henry Fielding, Tobias Smollet appeared one after another.
The greatest merit of these novelists lies in their deep sympathy for the common man, the man in the street, who had become the central figure of the new bourgeois world. The common man is shown in his actual surroundings, which makes him so convincing, believable, and true to life.
Henry Fielding. His life and work. Henry Fielding, the greatest representative of bourgeois realism of the 18 th century, was a descendant of an ancient, aristocratic family. He was born on April 22,1707 in Sharpham.
He studied at the old-established boys school of Eton. At the age of twenty he started writing for the stage, and his first play Love in Several Masques was a great success with the public.
The same year he entered the philological faculty of the University at Leyden, but in less than two years he had to drop his studies because he was unable to pay his fees. From 1728 till 1738, twenty-five plays were written by Fielding. In his best comedies A Judge Caught in His Own Trap, Don Quixote in England, Pasquin he mercilessly exposed the English court of law, the parliamentary system, the corruption of state officials.
As a result of the popular success of Fieldings comedies, strict cencorship was introduced, which put an end to Fieldings career as a dramatist. He tried his pen as a novelist; besides, at the age of thirty he became a student of the University law faculty. On graduating, he became a barrister and in 1748 accepted the post of magistrate. The work enlarged his experience, helped his to acquire a better understanding of human nature and greatly increased his hatred of social injustice.
In the period from 1742 to 1752 Fielding wrote his best novels: Joseph Andrews, The Life of Mr. Jonathan Wild the Great, The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling. All these novels, excellent as they were, didnt make him rich: only his publishers prospered. Fielding continued to act as a judge till the year 1754, when he had to leave England for Portugal to restore his health, which had begun to fail.
But the warm climate of the country did not help him; he died in Lisbon in October, 1754 and was buried there. Fielding possessed qualities rarely found together: a rich imagination, a great critical power, a keen knowledge of the human heart. Fielding used to say that the three essential qualities in a novelist are genius, learning and experience of the human heart.
The qualities of candour and sincerity are especially apparent in Fieldings works. His characters are living beings of flesh and blood, a combination of contradictions of good and bad. He appreciates such virtues as courage, frankness and generosity. The most detestable vices for him are selfishness and hypocrisy. All this found the expression in his masterpiece The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling
The Sentimentalists. The optimism felt in literature during the first half of the 18 th century gave way to a certain depression as years went by. Towards the middle of the century a new trend, that of Sentimentalism, appeared. Sentimentalists were influenced by the French writer Rousseau, they thought that civilization was harmful to humanity. They believed that man should live close to nature and be free from the corrupting influence of town life.
The first representative of the sentimental school in English literature was Samuel Richardson. His novels Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded, Clarissa and The History of Sir Charles Grandison are works in which the inner world of the characters is shown. He makes his readers sympathize with his heroes.
Richardson glorifies middle-class values as opposed to the immorality of the aristocracy. These novels were very much admired in the 18 th and 19 th centuries. They were well known in Russia. Much in the works of the novelists of the time does not appeal to readers today; but these novels are full of humour and truthful descriptions of men and things, and will always be read.
In Oliver Goldsmiths novel The Vicar of Wakefield and Laurence Sternes Sentimental Journey the corruption of town life is contrasted to the happy patriarchal life in the country. Oliver Goldsmith was also a poet. His famous poem The Deserted Village shows England at the time of the expropriation of the peasants.
Источники: Кукурян И.Л.,An Outline of English LiteratureМ., изд-во МГУ,1997. Иллюстрации: rewarded-by-samuel-richardson/