The Authors: Nadezhda Ivanova, English Teacher, Project work Supervisor; Nadezhda Chudayeva, Grade 10D Tatiyana Novikova, Grade 10 D School #5, Krasnoyarsk-2011
Have you ever thought about the questions : are AmE and BrE different languages or two variants of English who needs to know more about it what are the differences and similarities between AmE and BrE Barack Obama (USA)
When I speak my mother tongue an Englishman cant understand me at all. Mark Twain
Introduction Whats in a Language?Whats in a Language? Intranational and international regional varieties of EnglishIntranational and international regional varieties of English Standards of EnglishStandards of English The History of EnglishThe History of English Immigration to AmericaImmigration to America Child of the AmericasChild of the Americas American MetaphorsAmerican Metaphors Racial breakdown in USARacial breakdown in USA A Hospitable LanguageA Hospitable Language American IdentitiesAmerican Identities American CoinsAmerican Coins AmE vs. BrE – differencesAmE vs. BrE – differences Lets practise!Lets practise! References Meet the authorsMeet the authors
The movement of English around the world in the 16 th – 20 th centuries. The factors of the present day status of English as World Language. American English dominance.
A language is a two-facet unit. An essential early step in the study of a language is to model it in order to see how it is structured and used. (CUP) A basic language learner is normally focused on the structure of a language. In our project, we focus on the second perspective, the USE. The Roman god, Janus, with a double-faced head. use structure
Dialects are traditionally thought of as an intranational matter – the study of local dialects. Historically, the English language was restricted to the British Isles. Even when it began to move around the world, only few global differences in regional speech were apparent (American English, Canadian English, Australian English). In the present century, there is a universal awareness that English dialects operate on a world scale (the study of world Englishes). The study of local dialects + the study of world Englishes = The Circles of World EnglishThe Circles of World English
From T. McArthur, 1987 Queen Elizabeth II (UK) Barack Obama (USA) Australian English WORLD STANDARD ENGLISH Australian, New Zealand, & South Pacific Standard English British and Irish Standard English American Standard English Canadian Standard English Caribbean Standard English West. East, and Southern African Standard English South Asian Standard English East Asian Standard English Irish English British English American English Indian English Pakistani English Ukrainian English Kenyan English Caribbean English Canadian English African English New Zealand English Japanese English Malaysian English
Expanding circle Outer circle Inner circle e.g. USA, UK, million e.g. India, Singapore, million e.g. China, Russia, million From B.B. Kachru, 1985 The inner circle refers to the countries where English is the primary language like the USA and the UK. The outer circle implies the spread of English as a 2nd language in non-native countries like India. The expanding circle involves the nations recognizing English as a foreign language.
Standard English (SE) - the notion appeared in 1980s. The SE of an English speaking country is a minority variety which carries most prestige and is most widely understood. This prestige accent is known as Received Pronunciation (RP). General American (GA) – the speech of native speakers of American English that many consider to be typical of the United States, noted for its exclusion of phonological forms readily recognized as regional to particular groups. World Standard English (WSE) – a totally uniform, regionally neutral, and prestigious variety does not exist worldwide. Two trends: each country where English is official language tries to preserve its linguistic identity from the foreign influence (Canadians do not want to be Americans); all other countries fall into three groups: Follow AmE Follow BrE mixed influences (Canada)
The history of the English language started with the arrival of three Germanic tribes, the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, who invaded Britain during the 5th century AD. There are three stages of the development of the English language: Old English ( AD) Middle English ( ) Modern English (1500-the PresentModern English (1500-the Present)
The New Colossus … Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses, yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door! Emma Lazarus ( ) 1. The first pilgrims came on the Mayflower ship and founded New England in 1620; 2. In the 18 th century there was a wave of immigrants from Northern Ireland and Scotland; 3. From 1840 to million immigrants came to America; 4. From 1901 to 1930 a million Mexicans came to Texas and California; 5. In 1975 immigrants from Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos came to the U.S.; 6. The U.S. Congress approved a series of immigration laws, restricting the flow of immigrants into the country.
I am a child of the Americas, A light-skinned mestiza of the Caribbean, A child of many diaspora, born into this continent at a crossroads. I am a U.S. Puerto Rican Jew, A product of the ghettoes of New York I have never known. An immigrant and the daughter and granddaughter of immigrants. I speak English with passion: its the tongue of my consciousness, A flashing knife blade of crystal, my tool, my craft. I am Caribena, island grown. Spanish is in my flesh, Ripples from my tongue, lodges in my hips: The language of garlic and mangoes, The singing in my poetry, the flying gestures of my hands. I am of Latinoamerica, rooted in the history of my continent: I speak from my body. I am not African. African is in me, but I cannot return. I am not Taina. Taino is in me, but there is no way back, I am not European. Europe lives in me, but I have no home there. I am new. History made me. My first language was Spanglish. I was born at the crossroads And I am whole. Aurora Levins Morales [b. 1954], was written in 1986
DescriptionNumber Per cent 1) White (European/Caucasian)198,176, % 2) Hispanic or Latino44,252, % 3) Black or African American36,434, % 4) Asian12,945, % 5) Two or more (mixed race)4,397, % 6) American Indian and Alaska Native2,035, % 7) Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander387, % TOTAL:299,398, % Statistical source: 2006 American Community Survey
The major sources of early-borrowed words in English: Latin, French, and Scandinavian. Modern English loans from Greek, Spanish, Portuguese, Arabic, Persian, Russian, and other languages. American English borrowings from immigrating peoples.borrowings
African banjo: a musical instrument with four strings, a long neck, and a body like a drum, use to play a popular music; Dutch coleslaw: a salad made from raw chopped cabbage; French prairie: a wide, treeless grassy plain; German hamburger: a sandwich made of a ground beef patty placed in a soft roll; pretzel: a hard glazed and salty bread shaped like a loose knot; Native American moccasin: a soft leather shoe; squash: a gourd-like vegetable grown on a vine; Spanish ranch: a large farm where sheep, cattle, horses are produced; Yiddish bagel: a hard glazed doughnut-shaped roll;
Some American English words were coined to indicate some aspects of American way: brunch: a late weekend breakfast (breakfast + lunch); cattle corn – mixed corn: sweet and salted; dime: a ten-cent coin; downtown: the centre of the city; geek: an uncool person (school slang); mall: a huge shopping centre with restaurants and even cinemas; nuts: crazy; pants: trousers (BrE); potluck: a party to which every family bring their own special dish to share it with the others.
Differences in spelling between AmE and BrE: centre (BrE) – center (AmE), theatre – theater, colour - color, catalogue – catalog, honour – honor, favourite – favorite, cheque – check, prison – jail and others. To know more look up hereTo know more look up here Deviant spelling (deviation from the norm): 'They're finger-lickin' good'. Accurate pronunciation of the word (formal and informal speech), for example: night - nite, through – thru, right - rite. To know more look up here
AmE pronounces the final /r / - are you /a:r ju:/: are easy / a:r i:zi/; BrE says the final /r/ before vowel sounds (vocalization) – are easy / a:r i:zi/; individual differences: ate - /eit/ AmE – /aet/ BrE, schedule – /`sked ʒ uәl/ - /edju:l/; long and short pronunciation of the letter A: ask - /aesk/ AmE – /a: sk/ BrE word stress in endings: -ary/-ory : secretary AmE – secretary BrE, laboratory – laboratory, inquiry – inquiry; -et: ballet – ballet, cigarette – cigarette, valet – valet; and other: magazine – magazine, moustache – moustache, premier – premier, princess – princess, weekend – weekend. To know more examples look up herelook up here
Some words is only in AmE, others - only in BrE. (congress AmE - parliament BrE, apartment – flat, cub – taxi, candy – sweets, elevator – lift, fall – autumn, mail – post, canteen – cafeteria, vacation - holiday). Some words are unambiguous (checking account - current account ). To know more look up hereTo know more look up here There are words that have one value from the WSE, and more additional values (caravan «refers to a group of travelers in the desert" in both versions, in BrE it means vehicle, in AmE – trailer, van). Both variants have the word undertaker, but AmE has also the word mortician. The most noticeable lexical differences in the car terminology (gas (gasoline) AmE –petrol BrE; automobile – car; gas pedal – accelerator; hood – bonnet; tire – tyre; truck – lorry; trunk – boot; windshield - wind-screen) Idioms can have different meaning. The play was a real bomb Americans will understand as a 'total disaster' - the British a huge success.
Irregular verbs – burned (AmE) - burnt (BrE), get, got, gotten - get, got, got; Possessive phrases - Do you have the time? - Have you got the time?; responses are also different (I don't - I haven't); AmE sometimes uses Past Simple vs BrE Present Perfect (I just ate - I have just eaten); In AmE will / won 't substitute shall / shan' t; The word order in the noun phrase (Hudson River - River Thames, a half hour - half an hour); AmE prefers was (I wish she was here - I wish she were here); adverbs (I'll go momentarily - I'll go in a moment, real good - really good, backward - backwards); Parallel excuses (They live on X street - they live in X street; I'll see you over the weekend - I'll see you at the weekend; Monday through Friday - Monday to Friday inclusive). To know more look up hereTo know more look up here
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Лалаянц И. – Приложение к газете «English», 20/1996, p.3; Adopted from Babayantz, A.V. 50 Essentials to Know about American Lifestyle, Мозаика, 3 – 2005, с. 14; Bordman, Martha. In the USA. – Titul, Obninsk, Chancerel, London, 2000; Crystal, David. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of The English Language. – CUP, Cambridge, 1995; Kral, Thomas. Discover America. An Integrated Skills Text for Intermediate/Advanced Students of English as a Foreign Language. – USIA, Washington, D.C., 1996; Heyck, Denis Lynn Daly. (1994). NY: Routledge; Steinbeck, John. America and Americans, - from Americans at First Glance, Viking Penguin Inc., 1966; Commager, Henry Steele. The Nineteenth-Century American. –from The American History: How the Past Helps Explain the Present and Future, 70-79; Todd Vidamour A Look at Hispanic Heritage in the United States of America – Presentation, U.S. Department of State/Georgetown University; U.S. Embassy, Moscow; Novosibirsk State Technical University, 2010; Раздаточный материал по теме.
Novikova Tatiana Chudaeva Nadezhda School #5 Krasnoyarsk Russia April, 2011
This is the British (English) flag. Before the American Revolution, it was the flag of the 13 American colonies. This was the Great Union Flag. It was the flag of the American army during the Revolutionary War. The flag of England was in the corner. The red and white stripes were symbols for the 13 American colonies Some people say Betsy Ross made the 1st American flag. In the corner, there were 13 white stars in a field of blue. The new flag also had 7 red stripes and 6 white stripes. During the War of 1812 the flag had 15 stars and 15 stripes for the 15 states. After a battle Francis Scott Key wrote a song about the American flag. The US grew and admitted more states to the Union. Now the flag has 13 stripes for 13 original colonies and 50 stars for the 50 states.
The American eagle is the official emblem (symbol) of the United States. It appears on the Presidential flag and some coins. The Bald Eagle is a bird of prey found in North America. It is the national bird and symbol of the United States of America. This sea eagle range includes most of Canada and Alaska, all of the contiguous United States, and northern Mexico.
The French gave the Statue of Liberty to the United States as a symbol of friendship. Now it is a symbol of freedom for new immigrants to this country.
EVENT CORE TEXT. A self-contained unit of discourse: a poster, a ticket, a novel. SIGN. A visual language used chiefly by the deaf. GRAPHOLOGY. The writing system of a language. PHONOLOGY. The pronunciation system of a language. LEXICON. The vocabulary of a language. GRAMMAR. The system of rules governing the construction of sentences.
SHORT TERM LONG TERM PERSONAL VARIATION of English arises out of differences in the memory, personality, intelligence, and social background of English speakers. TEMPORAL VARIATION: long term (Old, Middle, and Elizabethan English) and short term (changes within the history of a single person).
SOCIAL VARIATION. The use of English is affected by the social classes and roles, occupations, sex, age, ethnic groups, and education of language speakers. REGIONAL VARIATIONS imply intranational and international regional varieties.
The invading Germanic tribes spoke similar languages, which in Britain developed into Old English. Old English did not sound or look like English today. Nevertheless, about half of the most commonly used words in Modern English have Old English roots. Old English actively engaged with the Scandinavian languages. Latinisms appeared in the English lexicon as a result of the spread of Christianity in England. In the 8 th -9 th centuries there was a transition to the Latin alphabet.
In 1066 William the Conqueror invaded and conquered England. The Normans brought with them French, which became the language of the Royal Court. For a period there was a kind of linguistic class division, where the lower classes spoke English and the upper classes spoke French. In the 14 th century English became dominant in Britain again, but with many French words added. But the English Grammar has developed independently. The London dialect, the countrys official language and the basis of modern literary English, was formed in the 15 th century.
EARLY. Towards the end of Middle English, a distinct change in pronunciation started, with vowels being pronounced shorter and shorter. From the 16 th century many new words and phrases entered the language. Printing brought standardization to English. Spelling and grammar became fixed, and the dialect of London became the standard. In 1604 the first English dictionary was published. LATE. The main difference between Early Modern English and Late Modern English is vocabulary.