3. Mixed in which both are present exocrine and endocrine parts: - Pancreas; - Gonads.
4. Apocrine or also called paracrine - it is glands, which are located in organs or tissues (heart, stomach, kidney, liver, oral cavity, lungs, etc.).
1. Central endocrine organs: the hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal. 2. Peripheral organs of the endocrine system: thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands. 3. Bodies unite endocrine and not endocrine functions: the gonads (testes, ovary), placenta, pancreas. 4. Single hormone producing cells: neuroendocrine cells (nervous origin), single hormone producing cells (not nervous origin).
(depending on their origin) I.Glands endodermal origin: 1. Branchial group - derived epithelium of the pharynx and gill pockets embryo : - Thyroid gland ; - Parathyroid glands ; - Thymus. 2. Glands of the intestinal tube : - Pancreatic islets.
II. Glands of mesodermal origin (this group is selected only in recent years ) : - Adrenal cortex - interrenal system ; - Gonads.
III. Glands of ectodermal origin : 1. Neurogenic group - derivatives diencephalon : - Neurohypophysis ( posterior lobe of the pituitary gland) ; - Epiphysis. 2. Derivatives of Rathke's pouch epithelium - the epithelium of the oral bay : - Adenohypophysis. 3. Group sympathetic nervous system - derivatives of sympathetic nervous system: - Adrenal medulla ; - Paraganglia ( chromaffin body).
GLAND ORIGIN FROM DIFFERENT PRIMORDIA ENDOCRINE GLANDS 1. Ectodermal-branchial 1. Thyroid 2. Parathyroid 3. Thymus 2. Ectodermal medium-intestinal 1. Endocrine part of the pancreas 3. Mesodermal- interrenal 1. Adrenal cortex 4. Mesodermal-mesenchymal 1. Endocrine elements of the gonads (testis, ovary) 5. Ectodermal-neurogenic 1. Neurohypophysis 2. Pineal body 3. Chromaffin body (paraganglia) 4. Adrenal medulla 6. Ectodermal-mouthparts 1. Adenohypophysis
From the ectoderm develop: - Pituitary; - Epiphysis; - Adrenal medulla; - Chromaffin bodies. Develop from the endoderm: - Thyroid gland; - Parathyroid glands; - Thymus; - Insular apparatus of the pancreas. Develops from the mesoderm: - Adrenal cortex; - Endocrine part of the gonads.
Additional endocrine glands develop from embryonic sources sympathetic nervous system. They are also known as chromaffin bodies. These include: 1) intercarotid chromaffin body (somnolent glomerulus) at the beginning of the external and internal carotid arteries 2) lumbo-aortic chromaffin body located the front surface of the abdominal aorta 3) unstable under cardiac chromaffin body between the pulmonary artery and aorta.
Cells of paraganglia secreted catecholamines. Involution anatomically separate paraganglia begins in years and ends at the end of puberty. Lumbo-aortic paraganglia well expressed in neonates and infants. This small thin strips on either side of the aorta at the level of the beginning of the inferior mesenteric artery. The newborn sizes up paraganglia (8-15) * (2-3) mm in infants - about 3 cm