Презентация на тему: " Black Holes: Observations Lecture 2: BHs in close binaries Sergei Popov (SAI MSU)" — Транскрипт:
Black Holes: Observations Lecture 2: BHs in close binaries Sergei Popov (SAI MSU)
2 Plan of the lecture 1.Close binaries. Evolution. 2.BH candidates 3.Mass determination 4.Systems BH+PSR – the astrophysical Holy Grail 5.Spectra and states 6.Variability. QPO. 7.ULX – ultraluminous X-ray sources
3 Reviews astro-ph/ X-ray Properties of Black-Hole Binaries astro-ph/ Black Hole Binaries astro-ph/ Intermediate-Mass Black Holes astro-ph/ Accreting Neutron Stars and Black Holes: A Decade of Discoveries astro-ph/ What can we learn about black-hole formation from black-hole X-ray binaries? gr-qc/ Black Holes in Astrophysics astro-ph/ Black Hole States: Accretion and Jet Ejection astro-ph/ Class Transitions in Black Holes astro-ph/ Inclination Effects and Beaming in Black Hole X-ray Binaries astro-ph/ Evidence for Black Hole Spin in GX 339-4: XMM-Newton EPIC-pn and RXTE Spectroscopy of the Very High State arxiv: Models for microquasars arxiv: X-ray observations of ultraluminous X-ray sources
4 X-ray observations: Cyg X-1 In the case of Cyg X-1 black hole – is the most conservative hypothesis Edwin Salpeter The history of exploration of binary systems with BHs started about 35 years ago...
5 X-ray novae Low-mass binaries with BHs One of the best candidates In the minimum it is possible to see the secondary companion, and so to get a good mass estimated for a BH.
6 X-ray nova light curve (Psaltis astro-ph/ ) A NS system A BH system
7 BH candidates Among 20 good candidates 17 are X-ray novae. 3 belong to HMXBs (Cyg X-1, LMC X-3, GRS ). (J. Orosz, from astro-ph/ )
8 Candidates properties (astro-ph/ )Also there are about 20 canditates to candidates.
9 Mass determination here m x, m v - masses of a compact object and of a normal (in solar units), K v – observed semi-amplitude of the line of sight velocity of the normal star (in km/s), P – orbital period (in days), e – orbital eccentricity, i – orbital inclination (the angle between the line of sight and the normal to the orbital plane). As one can see, the mass function of the normal star is the absolute lower limit for the mass of the compact object. The mass of the compact object can be calculated as: So, to derive the mass of the compact object in addition to the line of sight velocity it is necessary to know independently two more parameters: the mass ratio q=m x /m v, and the orbital inclination i.
10 Black hole masses (Orosz 2002, see also Psaltis astro-ph/ ) The horizontal line corresponds to the mass equal to 3.2 solar.
11 Systems BH + radio pulsar: a Holy Grail The discovery of a BH in pair with a radio pulsar can provide the most direct proof of the very existence of BHs. Especially, it would be great to find a system with a millisecond pulsar observed close to the orbital plane. Computer models provide different estimates of the abundance of such systems. Lipunov et al (1994) give an estimate about one system (with a PSR of any type) per 1000 isolated PSRs. Pfahl et al. (astro-ph/ ) give much lower estimate for systems BH+mPSR: about 0.1-1% of the number of binary NSs. This is understandable, as a BH should be born by the secondary (i.e. initially less massive) component of a binary system.
12 Parameters of systems BH+PSR (Lipunov et al. 1994)
13 Spectra of BH candidates (Psaltis astro-ph/ ) XTE
14 The spectrum of Cyg X-1 (Miller et al. 2002, see Psaltis astro-ph/ ) Absorption features are formed in the wind of the companion.
15 Jet from GRS (Mirabel, Rodrigez 1994, see Psaltis astro-ph/ ) VLA data. Wavelength 3.5 cm.
16 States (luminosity+spectrum+jet) astro-ph/ astro-ph/ McClintock, Remillard Black holes on binary systems Now there are several classifications of states of BH binaries. The understading that BH binaries can pass through different states (characterized by luminosity, spectrum, and other features, like radio emission) appeared in 1972 when Cyg X-1 suddenly showed a drop in soft X-ray flux, rise in hard X-ray flux, and the radio source was turned on.
17 Three-state classification (Remillard, McClintock astro-ph/ ) In this classification the luminosity is not used as one of parameters.
18 Discs and jets (Fender et al. 2004, Remillard, McClintock astro-ph/ ) The model for systems with radio jets LS – low/hard state HS – high/soft state VHS/IS –very high and intermediate states The shown data are for the source GX
19 GRO J during a burst (Remillard, McClintock astro-ph/ ) Red crosses – thermal state, Green triangles – steep power-law (SPL), Blue squares – hard state.
22 QPO BH candidates demonstrate two main types of QPOs: Low-frequency ( Hz) and high-frequency ( Hz). Low-frequency QPOs are found in 14 out of 18 objects. They are observed during different states of sources. Probably, in different states different mechanisms of QPO are working. High-frequency QPOs are known in a smaller number of sources (7). It is supposed that frequencies of these QPOs correspond to the ISCO.
23 QPO and flux from a disc (Remillard, McClintock astro-ph/ ) SPL – green triangles Hard – blue squares Intermediate states – black circles Probably, QPO mechanisms in the hard state and in the SPL state are different. Low-frequency QPOs (their frequency and amplitude) correlate with spectral parameters.
24 QPO at high (for BHs) frequency (Remillard, McClintock astro-ph/ ) All QPO at >100 Hz are observed only in the SPL state. Blue curves: for the range keV. Red curves: for a wider range (towards lower energies).
25 QPOs and BH masses (Remillard, McClintock astro-ph/ ) XTE J , GRO J , GRS Dashed line is plotted for the relation ν 0 = 931 Hz (M/M O ) -1
26 Quescent luminosity vs. Orbital period (Garcia et al. 2001, see Psaltis astro-ph/ ) Open symbols – neutron stars black symbols – black holes.
27 GS and Nova Oph 1997 (Psaltis astro-ph/ ) On the left – Hα spectrum, On the right – the Dopler image See a review in Harlaftis 2001 (astro-ph/ ) GS Nova Oph 1997 There are eclipse mapping, dopller tomography (shown in the figure), and echo tomography (see ).
28 IR observ. of sources in quescent state arXiv: E. Gallo et al. The spectral energy distribution of quiescent black hole X-ray binaries: new constraints from Spitzer Excess at 8-24 microns. Possible explanation: jet synchrotron emission.
29 Ultraluminous X-ray sources ULXs are sources with fluxes which correspond to an isotropic luminosity larger than the Eddington limit for a 10 solar mass object. Now many sources of this type are known. Their nature is unclear. Probably, the population contains both: stellar mass BHs with anisotropic emission and intermediate mass BHs.
30 ULXs in NGC 4490 and 4485 Six marked sources are ULXs
31 Spectrum of the ULX in NGC 1313 NGC 1313 X-1 Green line – the IMBH model. Red – thermal component. Blue – power-law. (arXiv )
33 ULX in galaxies of different types In the following two slides there are images of several galaxies from the SDSS in which positions of ULXs are marked. Crosses (x) mark sources with luminosities >10 39 erg/s. Pluses (+) mark sources with luminosities > erg/s. The size of one square element of the grid is 1.2 arcminute (except IZW 18, in which case the size is 0.24 arcminute in right ascension and 0.18 in declination). Galaxies NGC 4636, NGC 1132, NGC 4697, NGC 1399 are ellipticals, IZW 18 – irregular, the rest are spiral galaxies. Ellipses mark the 25-th magnitude isophotes (this a typical way to mark the size of a galaxy).
34 ULX in galaxies of different types NGC 1132 IZW 18NGC 253 NGC 1291 IC 2574 NGC 1399
35 ULX in galaxies of different types NGC 2681 NGC 4697 NGC 4631 NGC 3184 NGC 4636
36 The source X-1 in М82 The source M82 X-1 is one of the most luminous, and so it is the best candidate to be an intermediate mass BH. QPOs are observed in this source. Their properties support the hypothesis of an intermediate mass BH. (http://www.pd.astro.it/oapd/2/2_1/2_1_5/2_1_5_1.html)
37 М82, stellar clusters and ULXs Intermediate mass BHs can be formed in dense stellar clusters. See, however, where the authors show that for solar metallicity even very massive stars most probably cannot produce BHs massive enough. McCrady et al (2003)
38 The population of ULXs 1. Intermediate mass BHs 2. Collimated emission from normal stellar mass BHs 3. Different types of sources (pulsars, SNR, contamination) 4. Background sources. Most probably, the population of ULXs in not uniform.