Презентация на тему: " The basic concepts of mood and modality in English Done by: 306 group Erdakhmetova K.,Wukiralla G. Beisenbay A., Altynbekova F. Ministry of Education and." — Транскрипт:
The basic concepts of mood and modality in English Done by: 306 group Erdakhmetova K.,Wukiralla G. Beisenbay A., Altynbekova F. Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan Kazakh Ablai khan University of International Relations and World Languages
Intoduction Mood and modality relate to the linguistic expression of the speakers attitude toward an utterancea simple enough notion at this level of abstraction. However, it is extraordinarily difficult to organize into a single, unified system not only the range of mood/modality (MOD) meanings but also their realizations in natural language. The challenge has, of course, been taken up before, with Palmer 1986 being among the most comprehensive cross- linguistic treatments. But all cross-linguistic works, as well as those specific to a given language or language group, benefit from the opportunity to present evidence selectively – an opportunity that is not available in all linguistic applications.
'Mood' and 'modality' are separate components of grammar, but they're related in origin and to some extent in meaning. Definition Mood is one of a set of distinctive forms that are used to signal modality. Modality is a facet of illocutionary force, signaled by grammatical devices (that is, moods), that expresses the illocutionary point or general intent of a speaker, or a speakers degree of commitment to the expressed proposition's believability, obligatoriness, desirability, or reality. WHAT IS MOOD AND MODALITY?
Mood is one of the two verbal categories that are to do with factuality. In English, it covers three subcategories Descriptions of English grammar usually recognize up to four 'moods': Mood 1 declarative (or indicative) 2 interrogative 3 imperative 4 subjunctive
Mood structure The mood structure is characterised by: – presence or absence of a Subject; – position of the Subject and the Finite.
The communicative acts are realized as follows: Mood and Speech Acts Sometimes the communicative acts can be realised using more marked structures:
Declarative These sentences would be regarded as examples of the 'declarative mood': We always meet at the same pub. I've never met him. Declarative sentences express statements, but they often have other functions too: You've left the light on. (This can mean 'Turn it off'.) Declarative sentences typically have subject + verb word order. But sometimes there's no subject: Don't know where he is. Probably missed his train. - and sometimes the subject is after the verb: Then came the prize-giving. - or between the auxiliary and main verbs: Rarely have I seen such incompetence. Interrogative These sentences would be regarded as examples of the 'interrogative mood': When was the last time we met? Do you want tea or coffee? Interrogative sentences express questions, but they often have other functions too: Do you think I'm made of money? (This can mean 'Stop asking me for money.') What did I tell you? (This can mean 'I told you so.') And there are other ways of asking questions: I suppose you'd like something to eat. I'd like to know the train times for Sunday. In interrogative sentences, the subject is typically after the verb (if there's only one verb) or between the auxiliary and main verbs. But sometimes the order is subject + verb: You did what?! Imperative These sentences would be regarded as examples of the 'imperative mood': Mind the step. Don't just stand there! Come round at the weekend. Imperative sentences express directives, such as orders, instructions, requests, invitations etc. They typically have a verb with no subject and in the infinitive form - except for 'be', this is the same as the non-3rd person singular present simple. 'Don't' can be put before the verb to form negatives. But positive imperatives can also include an auxiliary 'do', and the subject can be included in positives or negatives: Do be careful. You stay here. Don't you tell me what to do! There may also be a 'please' or a question tag appended: Come over here, please. Be quiet, will you? Some languages have specific imperative verb forms, but English doesn't: the form of the verb used in an imperative sentence is the infinitive.
the indicative: the 'fact mood' which presents situations as facts the imperative: the 'will mood' which expresses non- factual situations that are desired by the speaker/writer to become true and in which the speaker the subjunctive: the 'thought mood' or 'what-if mood' which presents situations as nonfacts or hypotheses
Modality The term 'modality' includes various types of such personal receptions and attitudes. Modality is the other category that adds perspectives of factuality to the situation – or, more specifically, it expresses the speaker's conception of likelihood or obligation regarding the reality or unreality of the situation in question. A broad categorisation of the main types of modality would be: possibility, including ability and permission necessity, including obligation volitionprediction
Modality is primarily expressed by the modal verbs (13) and the semi-modal verbs (14) (13)may/mightmustwill/wouldshall/should can/could (14)have togot to ought to (want to, need to, used to, be able to, had better) Can: o theoretical possibility (epistemic): 'Flying planes can be dangerous' o permission (deontic): 'You can have my car if you want it' o ability (epistemic): 'I believe I can fly' Could: o present or future weak possibility (epistemic): 'We could perhaps destroy the Death Star with two screwdrivers and a bag of flour' o politeness (deontic): 'Could I borrow your pen?' May: o factual possibility (epistemic): 'You may just have sold your soul to the devil' o permission (deontic): 'You may enter' o wish (epistemic): Might: o hypothetical possibility (epistemic): 'The aliens might still occupy this part of town although there's no trace of them' o politeness (deontic): 'Might I ask you why you're pointing a gun at me?' Must: o obligation/com pulsion (deontic): 'You must face Darth Vader again' o logical necessity (epistemic): 'If you believe his lies, then you must be really stupid.' Will: o prediction (epistemic) specific predictability: 'He will be at home now' general predictability: 'Oil will float on water' o volition (deontic) weak volition: 'I will help you if I can' strong volition: 'If you will wear that stuff, it's not my fault if people laugh at you order/comma nd (deontic): 'You will take me to Jabba now' Would: o hypothetical (weak) possibility (epistemic): 'I would always be embarrassed if Britney Spears were my girlfriend' o politeness (deontic): 'Would you mind if I brought my pet killer monster?'
Types of modality Epistemic (or extrinsic) Epistemic modals are used to indicate the possibility or necessity of some piece of knowledge. (Wikipedia) E.g.,It might rain tomorrow. He must have missed the train. Extrinsic modality refers to our assessment of the possibility, likelihood or necessity of situations and events: It can be chilly here at night. You must be Dr. Livingstone. You might have left your coat at the pub. Non-epistemic (deontic or intrinsic): Deontic modals are those that indicate how the world ought to be, according to certain norms, expectations, speaker desire, etc. The sentence containing the deontic modal generally indicates some action that would change the world so that it becomes closer to the standard/ideal. (Wikipedia) Examples: You should work quicker. You MUST go now (I order you to leave now) Intrinsic modality refers to people's control over, and evaluation of, situations and events - whether these are permitted, desirable, approved of, etc.: You can't park here. You must be careful. This door shouldn't be left open.
Modality in Other Speech Acts Asking and Giving Permission Not all speech acts give information. Two other speech acts which often use modal verbs are those of REQUEST PERMISSION and GIVE PERMISSION. Promising PROMISE is another speech acts, where the speaker commits themselves to some proposal. PromiseI will get it to you.
Requesting Action The default form to request action from someone is the imperative: Turn the light on, please! However, to be polite, we often use indirect speech acts. We might for instance ask in a way such as the following: Could you turn the light on please? The obligation forms can also be used to request some action: You must leave at once! You should go now. You MUSTNT repeat this to anyone. (action is forbidden by the speaker) Offer Would you like anything to drink? (frozen formula in questions expressing an invitation) SHALL I carry those bags for you? Modality in Other Speech Acts
REFERENCES: – Downing, A & P. Locke (2002) A University Course in English Grammar. London: Routledge. (Section 44) – Greenbaum, S. & R. Quirk (1990) A Student's Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman. (Chapter 3) – Lock, G. (1996) Functional English Grammar. Cambridge: CUP. (Chapter 10)