Презентация на тему: " Can development prevent conflict? Regional Seminar for Excellence in Teaching Roundtable, September 14, 2010." — Транскрипт:
Can development prevent conflict? Regional Seminar for Excellence in Teaching Roundtable, September 14, 2010
Roundtable with elements of a role-playing game (90 min) Introduction (15 min); Development as conflict generating process (Misha Pokas) (7 min); Development as peace promoting process (Plamen Petrov) (8 min); Effectiveness of development aid and reforms in Tajikistan (Mukarrama Burkhanova) (7 min); Effectiveness of development aid and reforms in Ukraine – modernisation paradigm (Vladimir Salamatov) (8 min); Discussion and conclusions – 45 min (small groups (a) donor organization, e.g. IMF or World Bank, (b) Third World country, reporters: Evgeniy Rudnev and Nataliya Utesheva)
Development: definitions - examples There is no consensus what should be understood by development. Common definitions: The gradual growth of something so that it becomes more advanced, stronger (Oxford advanced learners dictionary) Gradual advancement or growth through a series of progressive changes; the result of developing or a developed state (Britannica Encyclopedia); Qualitative measure of progress in an economy; development and adoption of new technologies, transition from agriculture based economy and general improvement in living standards (Business dictionary) Other options to use term development: product development, software development, music development (elaboration of a theme with rhythmic and harmonic variations) breast development, etc.
Development: definitions Ожегов С. Толковый словарь русского языка Процесс закономерного изменения, перехода из одного состояния в другое, более совершенное; переход от старого качественного состояния к новому, от простого к сложному, от низшего к высшему. Законы общественного развития. 3. Степень сознательности, просвещенности, культурности. Высокое умственное развитие Словник української мови та культури (Словник NET) Процес, внаслідок якого відбувається зміна якості чого-небудь, перехід від одного якісного стану до іншого. Р. економіки – абсолютна і відносна зміна показників, які характеризують стан економіки країни. Ступінь освіченості, культурності, розумової, культурної зрілості
Development is equal to growth: initial concept Economic development has been centrally concerned with economic growth. Human and social development (e.g. human rights approach to development, sustainable development): emergence of democratic political and bureaucratic accountability, the triumph of law over custom, the quest for sustainability in the exploitation of resources, the emancipation of women, or a society's evolving capacity to handle more than one system of public ethics.
The development concept The development concept may claim that the large industrialized countries, e.g. the USA are developed. According to this, changes in Third World countries towards increased similarity with industrialized countries are regarded as development. Other changes are not regarded as such.
Theories of economic development: brief overview Economic development is a complex multi-dimensional concept involving improvements in human well-being; GDP is a narrow measure of economic welfare that does not take account of important non-economic aspects e.g. more leisure time, access to health & education, environment, freedom or social justice. Development economics emerged as a branch of economics; economists after World War II become concerned about the low standard of living in so many countries of Latin America, Africa, and Asia. The first approaches to development economics assumed that the economies of the less developed countries (LDCs) were so different from the developed countries that basic economics could not explain the behavior of LDC economies. Such approaches produced some interesting and even elegant economic models, but these models failed to explain the patterns of no growth, slow growth, or growth and retrogression found in the LDCs. Theories of economic development - the evolution of poor countries dependent on agriculture or resource extraction into prosperous countries with diversified economies - are of critical importance to Third World nations. Economic development projects have typically involved large capital investments in infrastructure (roads, irrigation networks, etc.), industry, education, and financial institutions (Britannica Encyclopedia)
Measures of development The UN has developed a widely accepted set of indices to measure development against a mix of composite indicators: UN's Human Development Index (HDI) (a country's average achievements in three basic dimensions of human development: life expectancy, educational attainment and adjusted real income ($PPP per person). UN's Human Poverty Index (HPI) measure deprivation using % of people expected to die before age 40, % of illiterate adults, % of people without access to health services and safe water and the % of underweight children under five.
Two groups of countries at the higher risk Marginalized developing countries (low developing countries that failed to sustain the policies, governance and institutions to achieve economic growth); Countries caught in the conflict trap (Paul Collier): Once a country has had a conflict, it is in far greater danger of future conflict
Economic costs of conflict Cost of active participation; Displacement, mortality and poverty of non- combatants within the country (by the end of typical civil war incomes are around 15% lower, 30% of population live in absolute poverty – World Bank); Civil war effects neighboring countries: the problem of refugees, rise of military and security expenses; Global effect of civil war – it creates territories outside the control of any recognized government
Every element of development is subject to controversy 1) the meaning of development; 2) interdisciplinarity of the subject; 3) the geographical coverage; 4) the tension between social processes and managed changes
Can development prevent conflict? Development as conflict generating process Socially biased distribution of development benefits – inequality (unbalanced growth and income distribution – Kuznets, Dandekar and Rath); Conflict between newly established economic institutions and cultural norms; Conflicts within the economic system – the periphery model of capitalism Disposition to violence - tension between innovations and marginalisation (Apter) Development as peace- promoting process Increased mutual understanding and acceptance; International institutions (the United Nations, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe);
Conclusions Development depends on different points of view Role of values, countries strategies and national interests, time framework Heritage issue (soviet heritage) Participation of population Admitting foreign experiences
Development cant prevent conflicts Different examples, where economic development cant prevent conflicts: China - between ethnic, religious and social groups Georgia conflict – tension btw different territories France – conflict btw poor subgroups and reach centers CONCLUSION: The base of all mentioned cases is economic situation
Development can prevent conflicts Social development depends on economic development and development of the region Development is a tool to improve livelihood of people Technological development prevents conflict situation
Third group Development brings new problems, which also should be solved Its not dividable: positive and negative sides of the development Different levels of the development should be analyzed Social development cant depend on economic development