Articulating Beliefs Learner-centered curriculum Development of a community of learners who support each others learning process; emphasis on cooperation in place of competition; student participation in course content, process, and assessment; use of feedback as a means of course evaluation Meaning-centered curriculum Development of course content relevant to students needs and interests; incorporation of sociocultural issues of second language learning Process-centered curriculum Use of five step process writing model; use of self-assessment as well as assessment by peers and teacher; final assessment based on progress, participation, and performance Clear articulation of roles of teacher and students Students as managers of their own learning (via learner strategy training), and as resources for their peers Teacher as curriculum designer and articulator of goals and objectives, enthusiast, resource, coordinator of class activities, participant in assessment process, and co- learner
Needs assessment 1. Letter to students 2. Writing case history 3. Personal goals and objectives 4. Questionnaires: initial, midterm, final 5. Anonymous feedback cards 6. In-class discussions 7. Student-teacher conferences
Reflective teacher examines, frames, and attempts to solve the dilemmas of class-room practice; is aware of and questions the assumptions and values he or she brings to teaching; is attentive to institutional and cultural contexts in which he or she teaches; takes part in curriculum development and is involved in school change efforts; and takes responsibility for his or her own professional development. Zeichner and Liston 1996 p.6
Teaching process itself changes in the balance of power changes in the function of course content changes in the role of the teacher changes in who is responsible for learning changes in the purpose and process of evaluation.
Seven principles to guide the instructor trying to develop a learner-centered classroom: Teachers do learning tasks less. Teachers do less telling; students do more discovering. Teachers do more design work. Teachers do more modeling. Teachers do more to get students learning from and with each other. Teachers work to create climates for learning. Teachers do more with feedback.
Several strategies help to create a climate that produces self-regulated intrinsically motivated learners: The instructor should make the content relevant Make the student responsible for learning decisions Be consistent in administering policies. Involve students in a discussion of creating a climate that promotes learning. Obtain feedback Employ practices that encourage students to encounter themselves as learners
The purpose and process of evaluation Purpose : Focus on learning, rather than grading. Multiple choice test that was used reflected surface learning, not deep learning,they discouraged students from acquiring the self-assessment and peer assessment skills needed in other courses and in the workplace It reinforces learning strategies that focus on memorizing, and forgetting. Focus on learning processes associated with evaluation. Conduct student- directed review sessions before exams; allow a single crib card during the exam because its preparation requires a lot of studying; conduct debriefings after the exam. Process : Reduce the stress and anxiety of evaluation experiences. Allow students to retake tests and revise assignments if doing so will promote learning. Dont make exams excessively difficult, to include topics that were covered in the course. Dont use exams to spring traps on unsuspecting students. Incorporate more formative feedback mechanisms.
Alternative student assessment assignments: Annotation of the Websites on ESL/EFL Methodology Annotation of the 3 articles from FORUM magazine. The students read authentic articles for themselves and supply it in a handout. ( Now I am going to ask them make presentations in class using OHP or Power Point, produce applications of a concept, rather than supply it in a handout, lead the discussion of the topics, that I observed at IU in Dr. Nyikoss class. Students will have to find probing questions, find a quote, fact, concept, idea that stood out from the article) make a collection of rhymes, tongue -twisters, proverbs make a list of methodological terminology with definitions (ex. approach, method, technique, rapport, etc.) tutoring and reporting on it. (students need to read at least 3 sources to find answers to the questions that arouse and then one-on-one consultations to help them) Classroom observation (I will be giving IU evaluation guidelines, SIOP model) Language Share Fair -- students share the ideas and findings for new classroom activities in a fun and relaxed atmosphere. Group project minutes lesson, 4-5 students, 2 months long preparation. On any topic covered in the course. Students have to plan the whole length class, make Internet search for materials, provide visual aids) Self -assessment, peer assessment The course paper presentations Portfolio (all assignments are gathered in the portfolio, the students can use them in their teaching practice that immediately follows the course)
Bibliography Maryellen Weimer. Learner Centered Teaching. Kathleen Graves. Designing Language Courses: a Guide for teachers. Sally Savanough. Learner Centered Assessment for the Classroom Teacher. Denice Lawson. Teachers` voices.