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© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama t e n t h e d i t i o n Gary Dessler Part 2 Recruitment and Placement Chapter 5 Personnel Planning and Recruiting
After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Explain the main techniques used in employment planning and forecasting. 2. List and discuss the main outside sources of candidates. 3. Effectively recruit job candidates. 4. Name and describe the main internal sources of candidates. 5. Develop a help wanted ad. 6. Explain how to recruit a more diverse workforce. 1. Explain the main techniques used in employment planning and forecasting. 2. List and discuss the main outside sources of candidates. 3. Effectively recruit job candidates. 4. Name and describe the main internal sources of candidates. 5. Develop a help wanted ad. 6. Explain how to recruit a more diverse workforce. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 5–2
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–3 The Recruitment and Selection Process 1.Decide what positions youll have to fill through personnel planning and forecasting. 2.Build a pool of candidates for these jobs by recruiting internal or external candidates. 3.Have candidates complete application forms and perhaps undergo an initial screening interview. 4.Use selection techniques like tests, background investigations, and physical exams to identify viable candidates. 5.Decide who to make an offer to, by having the supervisor and perhaps others on the team interview the candidates.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–4 Steps in Recruitment and Selection Process Figure 5–1 The recruitment and selection process is a series of hurdles aimed at selecting the best candidate for the job.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–5 Planning and Forecasting Employment or personnel planning –The process of deciding what positions the firm will have to fill, and how to fill them. Succession planning –The process of deciding how to fill the companys most important executive jobs. What to forecast? –Overall personnel needs –The supply of inside candidates –The supply of outside candidates
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–6 Linking Employers Strategy to Plans Figure 5–2
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–7 Forecasting Personnel Needs Trend analysis –The study of a firms past employment needs over a period of years to predict future needs. Ratio analysis –A forecasting technique for determining future staff needs by using ratios between a causal factor and the number of employees needed. –Assumes that the relationship between the causal factor and staffing needs is constant
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–8 The Scatter Plot Scatter plot –A graphical method used to help identify the relationship between two variables. Size of Hospital Number of (Number of Beds) Registered Nurses
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–9 Determining the Relationship Between Hospital Size and Number of Nurses Figure 5–3
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–10 Drawbacks to Scatter Plots 1.They focus on projections and historical relationships, and assume that the firms existing structure and activities will continue into the future. 2.They generally do not consider the impact the companys strategic initiatives may have on future staffing levels. 3.They tend to support compensation plans that reward managers for managing ever-larger staffs, and will not uncover managers who expand their staffs irrespective of strategic needs. 4.They tend to bake in the nonproductive idea that increases in staffs are inevitable. 5.They tend to validate and institutionalize existing planning processes and ways of doing things, even in the face of rapid change.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–11 Using Computers to Forecast Personnel Requirements Computerized forecasts –The use software packages to determine of future staff needs by projecting sales, volume of production, and personnel required to maintain a volume of output. Generates figures on average staff levels required to meet product demands, as well as forecasts for direct labor, indirect staff, and exempt staff. Typical metrics: direct labor hours required to produce one unit of product (a measure of productivity), and three sales projectionsminimum, maximum, and probable.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–12 Forecasting the Supply of Inside Candidates Qualifications inventories –Manual or computerized records listing employees education, career and development interests, languages, special skills, and so on, to be used in selecting inside candidates for promotion.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–13 Manual Systems and Replacement Charts Personnel replacement charts –Company records showing present performance and promotability of inside candidates for the most important positions. Position replacement card –A card prepared for each position in a company to show possible replacement candidates and their qualifications.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–14 Management Replacement Chart Showing Development Needs of Future Divisional Vice President Figure 5–4
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–15 Computerized Information Systems Human Resource Information System (HRIS) –Computerized inventory of information that can be accessed to determine employees background, experience, and skills that may include: Work experience codes Product or service knowledge Industry experience Formal education
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–16 The Matter of Privacy of HR Information The need to ensure the security of HR information –There is a lot of HR information to keep secure. –Control of HR information can be established through the use of access matrices that limit users. –Legal considerations: The Federal Privacy Act of 1974 gives employees rights regarding who has access to information about their work history and job performance.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–17 Forecasting the Supply of Outside Candidates Factors impacting the supply of outside candidates –General economic conditions –Expected unemployment rate Sources of information –Periodic forecasts in business publications –Online economic projections U.S. Congressional Budget Office (CBO) Bureau of Labor Statistics U.S. Department of Labor: O*Net Other federal agencies
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–18 Effective Recruiting External factors affecting recruiting: –Looming undersupply of workers –Lessening of the trend in outsourcing of jobs –Increasingly fewer qualified candidates Internal factors affecting recruiting: –The consistency of the firms recruitment efforts with its strategic goals –The available resources, types of jobs to be recruited and choice of recruiting methods –Nonrecruitment HR issues and policies –Line and staff coordination and cooperation
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–19 Effective Recruiting (contd) Advantages of centralizing recruitment –Strengthens employment brand –Ease in applying strategic principles –Reduces duplication of HR activiites –Reduces the cost of new HR technologies –Builds teams of HR experts –Provides for better measurement of HR performance –Allows for the sharing of applicant pools
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–20 Sample Acceptable Questions Once A Conditional Offer Is Made Figure 5–5 1.Do you have any responsibilities that conflict with the job vacancy? 2.How long have you lived at your present address? 3.Do you have any relatives working for this company? 4.Do you have any physical defects that would prevent you from performing certain jobs where, to your knowledge, vacancies exist? 5.Do you have adequate means of transportation to get to work? 6.Have you had any major illness (treated or untreated) in the past 10 years? 7.Have you ever been convicted of a felony or do you have a history of being a violent person? (This is a very important question to avoid a negligent hiring or retention charge.) 8.Educational background. (The information required here would depend on the job-related requirements of the position.) Source: Kenneth Sovereign, Personnel Law (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1999), p. 50.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–21 Measuring Recruiting Effectiveness What to measure and how to measure –How many qualified applicants were attracted from each recruitment source? Assessing both the quantity and the quality of the applicants produced by a source. High performance recruiting –Applying best-practices management techniques to recruiting. Using a benchmarks-oriented approach to analyzing and measuring the effectiveness of recruiting efforts such as employee referrals.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–22 Selection Devices that Could be used to Initially Screen Applicants Table 5–1 Source: Kevin Carlson et al., Recruitment Evaluation: The Case for Assessing the Quality of Applicants Attracted, Personnel Psychology 55 (2002), p Note: *Higher is better.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–23 Recruiting Yield Pyramid Figure 5–6 Recruiting yield pyramid –The historical arithmetic relationships between recruitment leads and invitees, invitees and interviews, interviews and offers made, and offers made and offers accepted.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–24 Internal Sources of Candidates: Hiring from Within Advantages –Foreknowledge of candidates strengths and weaknesses –More accurate view of candidates skills –Candidates have a stronger commitment to the company –Increases employee morale –Less training and orientation required Disadvantages –Failed applicants become discontented –Time wasted interviewing inside candidates who will not be considered –Inbreeding of the status quo
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–25 Finding Internal Candidates Job posting –Publicizing an open job to employees (often by literally posting it on bulletin boards) and listing its attributes. Rehiring former employees –Advantages: They are known quantities. They know the firm and its culture. –Disadvantages: They may have less-than positive attitudes. Rehiring may sent the wrong message to current employees about how to get ahead.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–26 Finding Internal Candidates (contd) Succession planning –The process of ensuring a suitable supply of successors for current and future senior or key jobs. Succession planning steps: –Identifying and analyzing key jobs. –Creating and assessing candidates. –Selecting those who will fill the key positions.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–27 Outside Sources of Candidates Advertising –The Media: selection of the best medium depends on the positions for which the firm is recruiting. Newspapers (local and specific labor markets) Trade and professional journals Internet job sites Marketing programs Constructing an effective ad –Wording related to job interest factors should evoke the applicants attention, interest, desire, and action (AIDA) and create a positive impression of the firm.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–28 Help Wanted Ad Figure 5–7 Source: The Miami Herald, March 24, 2004, p. SF.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–29 Outside Sources of Candidates (contd) Types of employment agencies: –Public agencies operated by federal, state, or local governments –Agencies associated with nonprofit organizations –Privately owned agencies
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–30 Outside Sources of Candidates (contd) Reasons for using a private employment agency: –When a firm doesnt have an HR department and is not geared to doing recruiting and screening. –The firm has found it difficult in the past to generate a pool of qualified applicants. –The firm must fill a particular opening quickly. –There is a perceived need to attract a greater number of minority or female applicants. –The firm wants to reach currently employed individuals, who might feel more comfortable dealing with agencies than with competing companies. –The firm wants to cut down on the time its devoting to recruiting.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–31 Outside Sources of Candidates (contd) Avoiding problems with employment agencies: –Give the agency an accurate and complete job description. –Make sure tests, application blanks, and interviews are part of the agencys selection process. –Periodically review data on candidates accepted or rejected by your firm, and by the agency. Check on the effectiveness and fairness of the agencys screening process. –Screen the agency. Check with other managers or HR people to find out which agencies have been the most effective at filling the sorts of positions needed to be filled. –Review the Internet and a few back issues of the Sunday classified ads to discover the agencies that handle the positions to be filled.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–32 Temp Agencies and Alternative Staffing Benefits of Temps –Paid only when working –More productive –No recruitment, screening, and payroll administration costs Costs of Temps –Fees paid to temp agencies –Lack of commitment to firm
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–33 Concerns of Temp Employees Treatment by employers in a dehumanizing, impersonal, and ultimately discouraging way. Insecurity about their employment and pessimistic about the future. Worry about their lack of insurance and pension benefits. Being misled about their job assignments and in particular about whether temporary assignments were likely to become full-time positions. Being underemployed (particularly those trying to return to the full-time labor market). In general they were angry toward the corporate world and its values; participants repeatedly expressed feelings of alienation and disenchantment.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–34 Guidelines for Using Temporary Employees Figure 5–8 1.Do not train your contingent workers. 2.Do not negotiate the pay rate of your contingent workers. 3.Do not coach or counsel a contingent worker on his/her job performance. 4.Do not negotiate a contingent workers vacations or personal time off. 5.Do not routinely include contingent workers in your companys employee functions. 6.Do not allow contingent workers to utilize facilities intended for employees. 7.Do not let managers issue company business cards, nameplates, or employee badges to contingent workers without HR and legal approval. 8.Do not let managers discuss harassment or discrimination issues with contingent workers. 9.Do not discuss job opportunities and the contingent workers suitability for them directly. 10.Do not terminate a contingent worker directly. Source: Adapted from Bohner and Selasco, Beware the Legal Risks of Hiring Temps, Workforce, October 2000, p. 53.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–35 Working with a Temp Agency Invoicing. Get a sample copy of the agencys invoice. Make sure it fits your companys needs. Time sheets. With temps, the time sheet is not just a verification of hours worked. Once the workers supervisor signs it, its usually an agreement to pay the agencys fees. Temp-to-perm policy. What is the policy if the client wants to hire one of the agencys temps as a permanent employee? Recruitment of and benefits for temp employees. Find out how the agency plans to recruit what sorts of benefits it pays. Dress code. Specify the attire at each of your offices or plants. Equal employment opportunity statement. Get a statement from the agency that it is not discriminating when filling temp orders. Job description information. Have a procedure whereby you can ensure the agency understands the job to be filled and the sort of person you want to fill it.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–36 Offshoring/Outsourcing White-Collar and Other Jobs Specific issues in outsourcing jobs abroad –Political and military instability –Likelihood of cultural misunderstandings –Customers security and privacy concerns –Foreign contracts, liability, and legal concerns –Special training of foreign employees –Costs associated with companies supplying foreign workers
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–37 Outside Sources of Candidates (contd) Executive recruiters (headhunters) –Special employment agencies retained by employers to seek out top-management talent for their clients. Contingent-based recruiters collect a fee for their services when a successful hire is completed. Retained executive searchers are paid regardless of the outcome of the recruitment process. –Internet technology and specialization trends are changing how candidates are attracted and how searches are conducted.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–38 Guidelines for Choosing a Recruiter Make sure the firm is capable of conducting a thorough search. Meet the individual who will actually handle your assignment. Ask how much the search firm charges.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–39 Outside Sources of Candidates (contd) On demand recruiting services (ODRS) –A service that provides short-term specialized recruiting to support specific projects without the expense of retaining traditional search firms.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–40 Outside Sources of Candidates (contd) College recruiting –Recruiting goals To determine if the candidate is worthy of further consideration To attract good candidates –On-site visits Invitation letters Assigned hosts Information package Planned interviews Timely employment offer Follow-up –Internships
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–41 Outside Sources of Candidates (contd) Employee referrals –Applicants who are referred to the organization by current employees Referring employees become stakeholders. Referral is a cost-effective recruitment program. Referral can speed up diversifying the workforce Walk-ins –Direct applicants who seek employment with or without encouragement from other sources. –Courteous treatment of any applicant is a good business practice.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–42 Outside Sources of Candidates (contd) Recruiting via the Internet –More firms and applicants are utilizing the Internet in the job search process. Advantages of Internet recruiting –Cost-effective way to publicize job openings –More applicants attracted over a longer period –Immediate applicant responses –Online prescreening of applicants –Links to other job search sites –Automation of applicant tracking and evaluation
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–43 Selected Recruitment Web Sites Figure 5–9 Source: HR Magazine, November 2003.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–44 Ineffective and Effective Web Ads Figure 5–10
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–45 Issues in Recruiting a More Diverse Workforce Single parents –Providing work schedule flexibility. Older workers –Revising polices that make it difficult or unattractive for older workers to remain employed. Recruiting minorities and women –Understanding recruitment barriers. –Formulating recruitment plans. –Instituting specific day-to-day programs.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–46 Issues in Recruiting a More Diverse Workforce (contd) Welfare-to-work –Developing pre-training programs to overcome difficulties in hiring and assimilating persons previously on welfare. The disabled –Developing resources and policies to recruit and integrate disable persons into the workforce.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–47 Developing and Using Application Forms Application form –The form that provides information on education, prior work record, and skills. Uses of information from applications –Judgments about the applicants educational and experience qualifications –Conclusions about the applicants previous progress and growth –Indications of the applicants employment stability –Predictions about which candidate is likely to succeed on the job
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.5–48 HR Scorecard for Hotel Paris International Corporation* Figure 5–11 Note: *(An abbreviated example showing selected HR practices and outcomes aimed at implementing the competitive strategy, To use superior guest services to differentiate the Hotel Paris properties and thus increase the length of stays and the return rate of guests and thus boost revenues and profitability)
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