About the country Canada - a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Area sq. km. (second in the world). The Atlantic, Pacific and Arctic oceans. It shares borders with the United States, Denmark and France. Population - 34 million people. ? Capital - Ottawa. Is a federation composed of 10 provinces and 3 territories. Official languages: English and French. ? Economy: Diversified, based? On rich natural resources and trade.
Geography Canada occupies most of the northern half of the continent of North America and the adjacent islands are numerous. To the east by the Atlantic coast of the country, in the west - the Pacific and the north - the Arctic Ocean. The country's territory extends from 83 degrees north latitude in the north (Cape Columbia on Ellesmere Island) to 41 degrees latitude south (Island Mild Island on the lake. Eire). Area of the country thousand sq.km.
Relief The main part of the country is occupied by plains and plateau prairie Canadian Shield. To the west of the continental lowland prairie located in British Columbia and the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians rise from the south from Quebec to the coastal provinces. Continental land to the north of the North Canadian border with a large archipelago, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, comprising the largest island in the world. The area covered by polar ice, between the islands of Queen Elizabeth is the magnetic north pole. Most densely populated area of the country - is Quebec-Windsor corridor along the coast plains and the St. Lawrence River in the southeast of the Great Lakes.
Rivers and lakes Canada has more lakes than any other country in the world, it has significant reserves of fresh water. In eastern Canada St. Lawrence River flows into the Gulf of St. Lawrence, with the largest estuary in the world, where is the island of Newfoundland. New Brunswick and Nova Scotia are divided Bay of Fundy, which is famous for the highest tides in the world. To the north of the 60th parallel are numerous lakes (the largest of which Great Bear and Great Slave Lake) and the intersection of the longest river in the country - the Mackenzie River.
Great Lakes - a system of freshwater lakes in North America, the U.S. and Canada. Includes a number of large and medium-sized reservoirs, linked by rivers and straits. An area of about thousand km ², the water volume 22.7 thousand km ³. By itself the Great Lakes are the five biggest: Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie and Ontario. Contact them several medium lakes. The lakes belong to the basin of the Atlantic. Stoke on the St. Lawrence River. Great lakes
Niagara Falls - the general name of three waterfalls on the Niagara River, which separates the U.S. state of New York from the Canadian province of Ontario. Niagara Falls - a waterfall, "Horseshoe", sometimes also called the Canadian Falls, the American Falls and the falls "veil." Although the elevation and not too large, the waterfalls are very wide, and the volume of water passing through it Niagara Falls - the most powerful in North America. High waterfall is 53 meters. The foot of the American Falls overshadows heap of stones, making it visible height - only 21 meters. Width American Falls meters waterfall "Horseshoe" meters. The volume of falling water reaches more than 5700 m ³ / s. Niagara Falls
Climate From the Pacific Ocean in the west to the Atlantic in the east stretches in the south temperate zone. Average temperatures in January and July, and are different for each area. Winter can be very severe in some regions of the country, average temperatures can reach 15˚C below zero in the southern part of the country, and sometimes -45˚C with strong icy winds. The lowest temperature ever recorded in Canada is -63˚C (in the Yukon). Each year, the snow level to several hundred centimeters (for example, in Quebec, on average 337 cm). Coast of British Columbia, particularly Vancouver Island, is an exception and has a temperate climate with mild and rainy winters. Summer temperatures can reach 35˚C and 40˚C even given the humidity index.
State political unit Canada - a country, part of the British Commonwealth, and the formal head of state is the Queen of England. Official representative of the Queen in Canada is the Governor General. Canada - a parliamentary federal system with a democratic tradition. Legislative power is vested in Parliament. The executive power is vested in Her Majesty's Government - the Privy Council. Supreme executive power is the carrier of the Queen. The judicial power is vested in the Queen and the Royal courts.
Economy Canada is one of the richest countries in the world with high per capita income, and is a member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the Group of Eight. Canada has a mixed economy. The largest importers of Canadian goods are the United States, Britain and Japan. The Canadian economy dominates the service sector. Is a very important resource sector of the economy, in which the logging and oil industries are the most important industries. Canada is one of the few developed countries that are net exporters of energy. Atlantic Canada has vast offshore fields of natural gas and large oil and gas resources. Huge reserves of oil sands make Canada the second largest country in the world oil reserves after Saudi Arabia. Canada is one of the world's largest suppliers of agricultural products: wheat, canola, and other grains. Canada is the largest producer of zinc and uranium, and is a source of many other natural resources, such as gold, nickel, aluminum and lead. In Canada, the development and manufacturing, the industry is concentrated in southern Ontario (automotive industry, represented by American and Japanese plants) and Quebec (National Aerospace).
Population Canada is relatively weakly populated. The density of the population (about 3.5 people per 1 km ²) is one of the lowest in the world. Canada's population of about 34 million people. Most densely populated area of the country - is Quebec-Windsor corridor along the coast plains and the St. Lawrence River in the southeast of the Great Lakes. The bulk of the population - the descendants of immigrants from Europe: Anglo- Saxons, French Canadian, German, Italian, Ukrainian, Dutch, etc. Indigenous people - Indians and Eskimos - during colonization was forced into the north.
Административное деление На данный момент Канада разделена на 10 провинций и 3 территории. Самой новой административной единицей Канады является территория Нунавут (создана в 1999). Провинция и территория различаются по степени их автономии. Провинциям полномочия фактически переданы Конституционным актом. MyGeography.ru
Major Cities Toronto - Canada's largest city, located at the intersection of water and land routes. Population thousand. City of Toronto, Brampton, Mississauga, Markham, etc. form a conurbation Greater Toronto Area (GTA) with a population of 5,715 thousand in Toronto and the surrounding area is home to around one third of the Canadian population. Montreal - the oldest city in the country and the largest city in the province of Quebec with a population of people. In the town live mostly French Canadians, so the city is called "French Canada" or the "Paris of North America." Montreal is the industrial center of the country, as well as its huge transportation hub. Montreal is the largest inland port. Vancouver- is located in the south-west of Canada, on the border with the U.S.. The population of the city (2006), but in Greater Vancouver, given the more than 20 suburbs, home to more than 2 million people. Vancouver - the largest port on the west coast of Canada, which is one of the largest business and industrial centers of the world. Calgary. Population - 1,230,248 people. According to the 2002 Calgary takes 31 place on the level of life of 130 major cities of the world, and in 2002 he was recognized as the world's cleanest city. It is believed that there is the pure water, the fresh air and the bluest skies. There are more than 8,000 hectares of parks, alleys and 460 km of rivers.
Ottawa Ottawa - Capital of Canada. Ottawa - the fourth-largest city ranks 6th in terms of living in the world. Ottawa is situated on the banks of the Ottawa River and the Rideau Canal. It was founded in Until 1855 it was called Baytaun. ? Since 1867, the capital of Canada.? Population of 875 thousand inhabitants. City Department provides municipal council headed by a mayor. The climate is temperate continental. The average January temperature is -11 ° C, July 20,3 ° C. 873 mm of precipitation per year. Ottawa to shape characterized by an abundance of water and greenery, the chess system of streets associated with a developed system of park roads. Residential construction in the main two-storey.
Culture Many elements of Canadian culture is very close to the American culture, including movies, television, clothing, housing, private transport, consumer goods and food products. Despite this, Canada has its own unique culture. To celebrate the fact that Canada settled peoples of different origin, in a country with 1960 common policy of multiculturalism. Canadian cities can find elements of the cultures of the world, in many cities, there are neighborhoods with a predominance of a national minority (such as Chinese, Italian, Portuguese neighborhoods in Toronto and Montreal), regular festivals devoted to the culture of different countries. Maritime Provinces retain Celtic Irish and Scottish folk music, which at the same time fits well with the themes of the Gallo-Roman Celtic Gaul prevailing in Acadia and Quebec. Also significantly influence the indigenous peoples of Canada, in many places you can find a huge totem poles and other objects of art of indigenous peoples. Significantly distinguished French-speaking population of Canada. It gives the special nature of the specifics of Canada, Montreal is the most important center of francophone culture in America.