Christmas as a holiday which has become international in the modern world Anikina E. Grade11 «Г» Teacher: Ye.R.Sibirina. - презентация
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Christmas as a holiday which has become international in the modern world Anikina E. Grade11 «Г» Teacher: Ye.R.Sibirina.
Plan. - Introduction -The main part Christmas as one of the most British traditions 1. How did Christmas start? 2. Christmas cards. Christmas tree. 3. Christmas carols. 4. Santa Claus. Who was he? - Conclusion - Materials
Introduction Introduction Every nation and every country has its own customs, habits, holidays and traditions. All traditions, customs, habits, holidays are connected with the development of history and culture of the country. Some of them have Christmas over centures. Christmas is the main holiday in Britain. In Christmas people give each other presents, sing Christmas songs, decorate houses, shops, Christmas trees are always decorated with fairy lights, angels and small toys. It is very beautiful and bright holiday. In many countries of the world, the celebration of Christmas on December 25th is a high point of the year. But why? Can it have any real meaning for us today? Is there a 'real' Christmas message? I think that this topic is very interesting, and it can be used at lessons of English language and regional geography. Thats why I decided to tell you about Christmas!
Chapter 1 How did Christmas start? Christmas is celebrated all over the world. The Christmas story comes from the Bible. An angel appeared to shepherds and told them that a Savior had been born to Mary and Joseph in a stable in Bethlehem. Three Wise Men from the East followed a wondrous star which led them to the baby Jesus to whom they paid homage and presented gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh. In abbreviated form, X or x represents the first letter of GreeceΧριστός. The word Christmas is a contraction of Christ's Mass, derived from the Old English Cristes mæsse
Since about 400 AD, Christians have celebrated the birth of Jesus. 'Christ' means 'Messiah' or 'Anointed One' - the title given to Jesus - and 'Mass' was a religious festival. In the West today, the real meaning of Christmas is often forgotten. It has become a non-religious holiday! More children believe in Father Christmas than in Jesus. Christmas Day is a time for eating and drinking too much and watching television.
These chapters tell how Jesus was born as a baby to Mary. This was no ordinary birth! She was not married, she was a virgin, and an angel had told her she would bear a special baby. Her husband-to-be, Joseph, did not believe her at first. Who would? Then an angel told him in a dream that it was true! Probably no one else believed it. So when they had to travel from their home in Nazareth to Bethlehem (near Jerusalem), to register their names with the ruling Roman government, they probably escaped many hard words from other people.
Arrival in Bethlehem brought worry and upset: there was no room for them to stay at the hotel. There was only space in the stable - the animal house for travellers' donkeys and horses.
Jesus was born that night, and as they had no bed for him, they used an animal feeding box filled with the dry grass the animals ate. Christmas cards and pictures today make it all seem very nice. In truth, it must have been dirty and frightening for a young couple, far from their home and families. Possibly the birth was premature after the stress of the journey. This was a very poor place for Jesus to start his life on earth.
The shepherds are frightened. At that time, sheep farmers were seen by other people as low and of no value. Yet it was to these shepherds that the birth of Jesus was first announced in an amazing dramatic way: "That night there were some men looking after sheep in the fields nearby. Suddenly they saw a great light. It was an angel, who said, 'Don't be afraid. I have good news for you, and for all people. Someone great has been born today. He is Christ, the great King you have been waiting for. He will save you from all that is wrong and evil. You will find him dressed in baby clothes, lying on a bed of dry grass.'"
The story of the wise men. After Jesus was born, wise men came to look for Him, from an area which is now in either Iran or Saudi Arabia. Although they are often called the "Three Kings", the Bible does not say how many there were, or that they were kings. Three is only a guess because they brought with them three gifts.
Gold, Frankincense and Myrrh. They were certainly men of learning - probably today we would call them philosophers or scientists. They had seen an unusual new star in the sky, and knew that it told of the birth of a special king. (The star they saw was probably a exploding "supernova" and is known from astronomical records.) They followed the direction of the star and eventually found the place where Mary, Joseph and Jesus were staying. To bring honour to the child, they brought rich gifts: gold, frankincense (a resin which burns with a beautiful smell), and myrrh (plant oil with a very strong sweet smell). These gifts tell us in pictures three key things about Jesus: Gold: a gift fit for a King Frankincense: burnt in worship of God Myrrh: a sign of mortal human-ness - it was used to bury the dead
Jesus a refugee. Herod, the evil king of the area, heard about the child, saw Him as a threat, and sent soldiers to kill Jesus. But God told Joseph in a dream to take Mary and the baby and escape to Egypt. They lived there till King Herod died and then went back to live in Nazareth. We read nothing more about the life of Jesus, except for one story when he was 12, until He reached 30. By the way - note one important thing: Jesus was not a white European, and Christianity is not a Western religion. Christmas cards from different countries often show Mary, Joseph and Jesus in the landscape of that country, and with the racial appearance of that nationality, be it black African, Indian, or Japanese. This is good and right - Jesus came to identify with every racial group. He is "Everyman" for us all.
Chapter 2. Christmas cards. Christmas cards are a part of the Christmas festivities. The first Christmas card has created in 1794 by English artist Dobson for his friend. The present serial card has appeared in 9 of December This card was drawn by the artist John Calcott Horsely by the order of the businessman of Sir Henry Cole, which wanted to congratulate the grandmother. On the card size 5x3 of inch represents Christmas dinner, in which three generations of family participate, it is possible the relatives of sir Henry. In total was printed of such 1 thousand cards, which were sold on 1 shilling. Till now was kept such 12 cards, one of them was sold for the record sum. Traditionally, Christmas cards showed religious pictures - Mary, Joseph and baby Jesus, or other parts of the Christmas story. Today, pictures are often jokes, winter pictures, Father Christmas, or romantic scenes of life in past times.
Christmas tree. The Christmas tree was popularized by Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria, who introduced one to the Royal Household in Since 1947, the country of Norway has presented Britain annually with a large Christmas tree which stands in Trafalgar Square in commemoration of Anglo- Norwegian cooperation during the Second World War. When Norway was invaded by German forces in 1940, King Haakon VII escaped to Britain and a Norwegian exile government was set up in London.
To most Norwegians, London came to represent the spirit of freedom during those difficult years. From London, the latest war news was broadcast in Norwegian, along with a message and information network which became vital to the resistance movement and which gave the people in Norway inspiration and hope of liberation. The tree has become a symbol of the close and warm relationship between the people of Britain and Norway. The tree itself, a Norwegian spruce (Piece abies), is chosen with great care from the forests surrounding Oslo.
Chapter 3. Christmas carols. The traditional period to sing carols was from St Thomas's Day (December 21) until the morning of Christmas Day. The word comes from the ancient Greek choros, which means "dancing in a circle," and from the Old French word carole, meaning "a song to accompany dancing." Englishmen have special songs which they sing during the Christmas season. The songs are known as carols and they are about when Jesus was born.
Caroling is one of the oldest customs in Great Britain, going back to the Middle Ages when beggars, seeking food, money, or drink, would wander the streets singing holiday songs. Over the years, the word 'carol' changed its meaning, referring only to certain kinds of songs, the word carol became known as Christmas songs. People go 'carol singing'. This is where people will go from house to house singing carols and collecting money for charity.
The first Christmas hymns were written in the 5th century. Originally composed in Latin, they contained primarily theological topics. Carols (noels), songs with more human and personal subjects,Appeared in the 1200's. During the middle Ages ( AD) people incorporated drama and plays into the celebration of Christmas. Carols became an integral part of these re- enactments. After the plays, carolers strolled down the street singing. Many of the traditional favorite Christmas carols, such as "O Come, All Ye Faithful" and "Silent Night", were written in the 1800's. The first instrument on which the carol "Silent Night" was played was a guitar.
Christmas songs such as" Jingle Bells" and "White Christmas" came later and reflect a more secular viewpoint of the holiday. Handel's Messiah, an oratorio (music drama without staging) first performed in 1742, is also a Christmas favorite. Musicologists agree that Christmas music is among the finest ever written in the world.
Chapter 4. Santa Claus. Who was he? 'Father Christmas' (or 'Santa Claus') has become the human face of Christmas. Pictures will be seen everywhere of the old man with long white beard, red coat, and bag of toys. Children are taught that he brings them presents the night before Christmas (or in some countries on December 6th - St. Nicholas' Day), and many children up to the age of 7 or 8 really believe this is true. In most countries, it is said that he lives near the North Pole, and arrives through the sky on a sledge (snow-cart) pulled by reindeer. He comes into houses down the chimney at midnight and places presents for the children in socks or bags by their beds or in front of the family Christmas tree. In shops or at children's parties, someone will dress up as Father Christmas and give small presents to children, or ask them what gifts they want for Christmas. Christmas can be a time of magic and excitement for children.
Father Christmas is based on a real person, St. Nicholas, which explains his other name 'Santa Claus' which comes from the Dutch 'Sinterklaas'. Nicholas was a Christian leader from Myra (in modern-day Turkey) in the 4th century AD. He was very shy, and wanted to give money to poor people without them knowing about it. It is said that one day, he climbed the roof of a house and dropped a purse of money down the chimney. It landed in the stocking which a girl had put to dry by the fire! This may explain the belief that Father Christmas comes down the chimney and places gifts in children's stockings.
Chapter 5 Boxing Day Boxing Day is a holiday celebrated in Britain. It falls on December 26, which is also St. Stephen's Day. The date of a holiday begins with the Middle Ages (A.D. 400's-1500's), but the exact origin is unknown. It may have begun with the lords and ladies of England, who presented Christmas gifts in boxes to their servants on December 26. Or it may have begun with priests, who opened the church's alms (charity) boxes on the day after Christmas and distributed the contents to the poor.
5 steps for a good holiday: 1. Attend a sporting event. In England, horse racing, regattas, football games and the Brighton Swimming Club's annual dip into the icy English Channel are just some of the events that take place on Boxing Day. 2. Remember those who have provided a service to you during the year. The postal delivery person, the newspaper delivery person, and employees of your household or business should be remembered with a tip, bonus or gift basket.
3. Remember those in need. Tradition has it that on Boxing Day in Victorian England, the poor went from house to house bearing boxes that were filled by compassionate home owners with food, clothing and gifts. Give canned goods, clothing or your time to organizations that help the needy. 4. Go shopping. Shopping is a popular Boxing Day activity, and the malls are usually filled with people taking advantage of after Christmas bargains.
5. Celebrate with friends. Provide food and drink, or organize a potluck get-together for friends and family. Make it low-key, as Boxing Day should be less hectic and more relaxing than Christmas Day.
There are many Christmas songs, the famous is Jingle Bells. This is a text of the song.
This is some poems of Christmas! THE TWELVE DAYS OF CHRISTMAS 1.On the first day of Christmas My true love gave to me A partridge in a pear tree. 2.On the second day of Christmas My true love gave to me Two turtle doves, And a partridge in a pear tree. 3.On the third day of Christmas My true love gave to me Three French hens, Two turtle doves, And a partridge in a pear tree. 4.On the fourth day of Christmas My true love gave to me Four calling birds, Three French hens, Two turtle doves, And a partridge in a pear tree. 5.On the fifth day of Christmas My true love gave to me Five golden rings, Four calling birds, Three French hens, Two turtle doves, And a partridge in a pear tree.
6.On the sixth day of Christmas My true love gave to me Six geese-a-laying, Five golden rings, Four calling birds, Three French hens, Two turtle doves, And a partridge in a pear tree. 7.On the seventh day of Christmas My true love gave to me Seven swans a swimming, Six geese a laying, Five golden rings, Four calling birds, Three French hens, Two turtle doves, And a partridge in a pear tree. 8.On the eighth day of Christmas My true love gave to me Eight maids a milking, Seven swans a swimming, Six geese a laying, Five golden rings, Four calling birds, Three French hens, Two turtle doves, And a partridge in a pear tree. 9.On the ninth day of Christmas My true love gave to me Nine pipers piping, Eight maids a milking, Seven swans a swimming, Six geese a laying, Five golden rings, Four calling birds, Three French hens, Two turtle doves, And a partridge in a pear tree. 10.On the tenth day of Christmas My true love gave to me Ten ladies dancing, Nine pipers piping, Eight maids a milking, Seven swans a swimming, Six geese a laying, Five golden rings, Four calling birds, Three French hens, Two turtle doves, And a partridge in a pear tree.
11.On the eleventh day of Christmas My true love gave to me Eleven lords a leaping, Ten ladies dancing, Nine pipers piping, Eight maids a milking, Seven swans a swimming, Six geese a laying, Five golden rings, Four calling birds, Three French hens, Two turtle doves, And a partridge in a pear tree 12.On the twelfth day of Christmas My true love gave to me Twelve drummers drumming, Eleven lords a leaping, Ten ladies dancing, Nine pipers piping, Eight maids a milking, Seven swans a swimming, Six geese a laying, Five golden rings, Four calling birds, Three French hens, Two turtle doves, And a partridge in a pear tree.
The ABC's of Christmas A is for Angel, on top of the tree, B is for Bell, ringing merrily. C is for Candy, a real Christmas treat, D is for Decorations, that can't be beat. E is for Elf, who helps Santa, it's true, F is for Fun, and Festive too! G is for God, who sent down His Son, H is for Home, where our fun's just begun! I is for Icicle, hanging from the roof, J is for Joy, and that is the truth. K is for Kris Kringle, who comes on Christmas eve, L is for Love, in this we believe. M is for Manger, where the Christ child lay, N is for Noel, we sing on Christmas Day. O is for O Holy Night, when Jesus was born, P is for Peace, for all on Christmas Morn. Q is for Quest, of the Wisemen that night, R is for Rudolph, whose nose is so bright! S is for Snow, which falls to the ground, T is for Tree, where gifts can be found. U is for Unselfish, which is what we should be, V is for Visit, from Santa, to you and me. W is for World, let peace be found here, X is "X"cited, as Christmas draws near. Y is for Yuletide, being happy and gay, and, Z is for Zoom, as Santa flies away!
Conclusion In my topic I would like to tell you about holidays in Britain, to show different traditions to spend Christmas in the world, to prove that Christmas has become an international holiday. I tell how Christmas started, who Santa Claus was. I proved that Christmas has really become an international holiday. It has a rich history. This material can be used at Country Study lessons, at English language lessons (7-8 grade, Topic British Holidays, Christmas).
Materials Crippen TG Christmas & Christmas Lore, - London, 1923 Hole Ch. Christmas & Its customs, - London, 1957 Miles C A Christmas in Ritual & Tradition: Christmas & Pagan.- London, 1912 Muir F. Christmas Customs & Traditions.- London, 1975 Boynton S. Christmas Time.- N.Y., 1987 Spicer D. Festivals of Western Europe.- N.Y., 1958