Done by Victorya Corneva, a pupil of the 8 th A form. - презентация
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Done by Victorya Corneva, a pupil of the 8 th A form
The Aim of Research is to learn out more about the people of Great Britain, their customs and traditions, their food as one of the parts of everyday and festival life. The practical aim is to learn out about the awareness of English learners about British food, to learn out more about the language of food, to make up the glossary of typical English food and suggest some recipes of British cuisine.
The tasks are: to learn books and articles about food, to look for different examples of descriptions of meals and food in the original literature, to classify examples of food in accordance to its purpose, to analyze the answers of English learners about food, to raise interest and motivation to learning English. The subject of the research is British food, the object is Lexicology and Sociology, learning out how traditions and customs can change the language. To learn it we have used some methods of research such as comparative, linguistic and contextual analyses.
British cuisine is the specific set of cooking traditions and practices associated with the United Kingdom. British cuisine has been described as "unfussy dishes made with quality local ingredients, matched with simple sauces to accentuate flavour, rather than disguise it." However, British cuisine has absorbed the cultural influence of those that have setled in Britain, producing hybrid dishes, such as the Anglo-Indian chicken tikka masala."
British cuisine has traditionally been limited in its international recognition to the full breakfast, fish and chips, and the Christmas dinner. Other famous British dishes include the Sunday roast, steak and kidney pie, shepherds pie, and banger and mash. British cuisine has many regional varieties within the broader categories of English, Scotish, Welsh, and Irish cuisine. Each have developed their own regional or local dishes, many of which are geographically indicated foods such as Cornish pasties, the Yorkshire pudding, Abroath Smokie Abroath, and Welsh cakes.
English Cuisine English cuisine is shaped by the climate of England, its island geography and its history. In the Early Modern Period the food of England was historically characterised by its simplicity of approach and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce. Traditional meals have ancient origins, such as bread and cheese, roasted and stewed meats, meat and game pies, boiled vegetables and broths, and freshwater and saltwater fish.
Bread There is a wide variety of traditional breads in Great Britain, often baked in a rectangular tin. Round loaves are also produced, such as the North East England speciality called a stottie cake. A cottage loaf is made of two balls of dough, one on top of the other, to form a figure-of-eight shape. A cob is a small round loaf. There are many variations on bread rolls, such as baps, barns, breadcakes and so on. Rhy bread is mostly eaten in the form of Scandinavian-style crisp bread. Malt loaf is a dark, heavy and sweet bread.
Cheese English cheese is generally hard, and made from cows' milk. Cheddar cheese, originally made in the village of Cheddar, is by far the most common type, with many variations. Tangy Cheshire, salty Caerphilly, Sage Derby, Lancashire Cheese, Red Leicester, creamy Double Gloucester and sweet Wensleydale are some traditional regional varieties. Cheddar and the rich, blue-veined Stilton have both been called the king of English cheeses. Cornish Yarg is a successful modern variety.
Fish and seafood Although a wide variety of fish are caught in British waters, the English tend to mainly eat only a few species. Cod, haddok, plaice, huss, and skate are the fish-and-chip shop favourites. A few other species, such as coley and pollock are found in the anonymous form of breadcrumbed fishcakes and fishfingers. Pilchards (large sardines), feature in the Cornish speciality, Stargazy Pie. Salmon, haddok, mackerel or herring may be smoked, the last in the form of kippers, buckling or bloaters. Herring may also be served pickled as rollmops.
Pies, pastries and savoury puddings The English tradition of meat pies dates back to the Middle Ages, when an open top pie crust was used as the container for serving the meat and was called a coffyn. Meat pies generally contain standard fillings such as chicken-and- mushroom, steak and ale, minced beef and onion, lamb, mixed game or meat- and-potato. Pork Pie is usually eaten cold. Open pies or flans are generally served for dessert with fillings of seasonal fruit.
Sausages English sausages are colloquially known as "bangers". They are usually made from fresh meats and rarely smoked, dried, or strongly flavoured. Sausages form the basis of toad in the hole, where they are combined with a batter similar to a Yorkshire pudding and baked in the oven, this can be served with an onion gravy made by frying sliced onions for anywhere over an hour on a low heat then mixed with a stock, wine or ale then reduced to form a sauce or gravy used in bangers and mash. Sausages can also be wrapped in pastry to form a sausage roll, which can be served hot or cold. Slices of cold sausage roll are a popular snack food served at parties.
Sandwiches England can claim to have given the world the word sandwich. English sandwiches are made with two slices of bread, or some kind of roll. Fillings such as pickled relishes and Gentlemans Relish could also be considered distinctively English. Common types of sandwich are roast beef, chicken salad, ham and mustard, cheese and pickle, egg, mayonnaise, prawn mayonnaise, tuna, marmite and jam.
Meals Breakfast Full English breakfast with bubble and squeak, sausage, bacon, grilled tomatoes and eggs. A light breakfast might consist of breakfast cereal, muesli, boiled or scrambled eggs, toasts and conserves or sometimes poached kippers. A traditional full English breakfast includes bacon (traditionally back bacon, less commonly streaky bacon), poached, fried or scrambled eggs, fried or grilled tomatoes, fried mushrooms, fried bread or toast with butter, sausages and black pudding, usually served with a mug of tea.
Afternoon tea A cream tea, comprising tea taken with scones, clotted cream and raspberry jam. It is a widespread stereotype that the English "drop everything" for a teatime meal in the mid-afternoon. This is no longer the case in the workplace, and is rarer in the home than it once was. There are also fairy cakes, simple small sponge cakes which can be iced or eaten plain. Nationwide, assorted biscuits and sandwiches are eaten. Generally, however, the teatime meal has been replaced by snacking, or simply dispensed with.
The Sunday roast The Sunday dinner traditionally includes roast potatoes (or boiled or mashed potatoes) accompanying a roasted joint of meat such as roast beef, lamb, pork, or a roast chicken and assorted other vegetables, themselves generally boiled and served with a gravy or roasted with the meat in its juices, which are then used as or added to the gravy. Sauces and jellies are chosen depending on the type of meat: horseradish or various mustards for beef, mint sauce or mint or redcurrant jelly for lamb, apple sauce for pork, and cranberry sauce for turkey. Yorkshire pudding normally accompanies beef (although traditionally served in Yorkshire, as a starter, from the days when meat was scarce so was served first as a "filler"), sage and onion stuffing pork, and usually parsley stuffing chicken; gravy is now often served as an accompaniment to the main course.
Dessert Traditional desserts are generally served hot and are highly calorific. A number are variations on suet pudding, and "pudding" is an alternative name for the dessert course in England. Sponge cake is the basis of sticky toffee pudding and treacle sponge pudding. Crumbles such as rhubarb crumble have a crunchy topping over stewed fruit. Other hot desserts include apple pie, treacle tart, Gypsy tart, Eton mess and trifle are served as cold desserts.
Sweet dishes Apple pie Christmas pudding Madeira cake Summer pudding Blueberry White Stilton
Northern Irish Cuisine Irish cuisine is a style of cooking originating from Ireland or developed by Irish people. It evolved from centuries of social and political change. The cuisine takes its influence from the crops grown and animals farmed in its temperate climate. Representative Irish dishes are Irish stew, bacon cabbage, potato, boxty, coddle, and colcannon.
From the Middle Ages the dominant feature of the rural economy was the herding of cattle. The meat produced was mostly the preserve of the gentry and nobility. The poor generally made do with milk, butter, cheese, and offal, supplemented with oats and barley. Potatoes form the basis for many traditional Irish dishes. The potato was introduced into Ireland in the second half of the 16th century, initially as a garden crop. The potato is also a good source of many vitamins and minerals, particularly vitamin C when fresh.
Traditional foods Breads Barmbrack - a kind of currant cake which contains a golden ring. Traditionally eaten around Halloween. Blaa Goody - a dessert dish Soda bread - a popular yeast free bread Wheaten bread Potato bread Veda bread Pork dishes Bacon and cabbage Black pudding - a traditional dish made from pigs blood, barley and seasoning Coddle - main ingredients: pork sausage, back bacon and potato Crubeens - pig's trotters Skirts and kidneys - a kind of pork stew Potato dishes Boxty - a kind of potato pancake Champ - main ingredients: mashed potato, scallions, butter and milk Colcannon - main ingredients: mashed potato, kale or cabbage, and butter Shepherd's Pie/Cottage Pie - main ingredients: mashed potato, minced lamb/beef and vegetables
Scottish cuisine Scottish cuisine is the specific set of cooking traditions and practices associated with Scotland. Scotland's natural larder of game, dairy products, fish, fruit, and vegetables is the chief factor in traditional Scots cooking, with a high reliance on simplicity and a lack of spices from abroad, as these were often very expensive. The mobile nature of Scots society in the past required food that should not spoil quickly. It was common to carry a small bag of oatmeal that could be transformed into a basic porridge or oatcakes using a girdle (griddle).
Scottish foods These foods are traditional to or originate in Scotland. Soups Cullen Skink Baud bree Cock-a-leekie soup Game soup Hairst Bree (or Hotch potch) Partan bree Scotch broth Cereals Porridge Sowans Skirlie Dairy and Cheese Bishop Kennedy Carola Criffel Crowdie Dunlop cheese Gigha Lanark Blue Caboc Dunsyre Blue Puddings and Desserts Burnt Cream Apple Frushie Blaeberry pie Carrageen Moss Clootie Dumpling
In addition to independent fast-food outlets, in the 1960s American-style burger bars and other restaurants such as Wimpy were introduced, and in the 1980s, McDonald's, Burger King, Pizza Hut and Kentucky Fried Chicken appeared in Scotland.
Welsh cuisine Welsh cuisine is the specific set of cooking traditions and practices associated with the country of Wales. It has influenced, and been influenced by, other British cuisine. Beef and dairy cattle are raised widely. Sheep farming is extensive in the country and lamb is the meat traditionally associated with Welsh cooking, particularly in dishes such as roast lamb with fresh mint sauce. Welsh cooking often includes seafood, especially close to the coast, where fishing culture is strong and fisheries are common. The vegetable leek, because of its role as the country's national vegetable, is also used frequently in Welsh cuisine.
Welsh dishes Tatws Pum Munud (English: five minute potatoes), a traditional Welsh stew, made with potatoes, vegetables and bacon, and cooked on top of the stove. Welsh rarebit or Welsh rabbit, although now synonymous with Wales, the origins of this dish are unclear and the name may actually be an ironic English reference to Welsh cuisine. The Welsh term for this dish is caws pobi, meaning baked cheese. Bara brith, "speckled bread", is a sweet bread which originated in Wales. Shepherd's pie, a type of lamb meat pie made with mashed potatoes, is often associated with Wales. Crempogau are Welsh buttermilk pancakes. Faggots are Welsh meatballs made from lamb or pig's liver, onions and a cereal binder. Glamorgan sausage is cheese, eggs and breadcrumbs in the shape of a sausage. Laverbread, or Bara Lawr in Welsh, is a Welsh seaweed delicacy. The laver is mixed with oatmeal, which is formed into patties and usually fried in bacon fat. Leek soup
Cheese Cheese has long been a traditional food of Wales, with Welsh Rarebit being a popular national dish by Tudor times, though known then as caws pobi. The best known Welsh cheese is Caerphilly though many other types exist, including Y Fenni, Tintern and Pantysgawn. Popular brands include Black Bomber made by the Snowdonia Cheese Company and Collier's Powerful Welsh Cheddar.