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Chapter 5: Gaining Power and Influence How do you get to the top of the world?
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 2 Objectives Enhance personal and position power Use influence to accomplish exceptional work Neutralize inappropriate influence attempts
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 3 Is Power A Dirty Word? Does the word power conjure up images of domination and manipulation for you? Do you think that people who use power are vindictive and/or cunning? Does the acquisition of power prevent people from acting in the best interests of a larger group?
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 4 Some Thoughts on Power The use of influence in itself is not negative....Like any powerful force – from potent medicine to nuclear power – it is the morality with which influence is used that makes all the difference. R.L. Dilenscheider, 1990 Hell is knowing you have a better solution than someone else, but not being able to get the votes.
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 5 Use and Abuse of Power Powerful managers: intercede favorably on behalf of others get more resources get fast access to decision makers get information early Derailed managers: are insensitive to others and betray their trust are cold, aloof and arrogant constantly play politics to move up cannot build a team are overdependent on others
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 6 Power Concepts The ability of a person or group to change the attitudes or behavior of others. Power is not power OVER others Power is the ability to GET THINGS DONE
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 7 Two Faces of Power Personal Power used for personal gain Institutional Power used to create motivation used to accomplish group goals
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 8 Sources of Personal Power Expertise – work related knowledge Attraction – charisma, agreeable behavior, physical characteristics Effort – doing whatever it takes to get the job done Legitimacy – taking action congruent with the prevailing value system
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 9 Personal Power and Personal Trustworthiness Sources of Personal Power Linking Personal Characteristic Requirements for Personal Trustworthiness Expertise Effort Reliable Dependable Ability: Can they make good on their commitments? Attraction Legitimacy Likeable Acceptable Motivation: Will they make good on their commitments?
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 10 Using Effort to Manage Your Boss Make sure you understand your boss and his/her context including Goals and objectives Pressures Strengths, weaknesses, blind spots Preferred work style Information on slides 9-11 adapted from J. J. Gabarrow and J. P. Kotter, Managing Your Boss, Harvard Business Review (January-February 1980):
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 11 Using Effort to Manage Your Boss Assess yourself and your needs, including Strengths, weaknesses, and blind spots Personal style Relation to authority figures
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 12 Using Effort to Manage Your Boss Develop and maintain a relationship that Fits both your needs and styles Is characterized by mutual expectations Keeps your boss informed Is based on dependability and honesty Selectively uses your bosss time and resources
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 13 Sources of Position Power Centrality – establishing a network of task and interpersonal relationships Flexibility – freedom to exercise ones judgment Visibility – interacting with influential people in the organization Relevance – working on the central objectives and issues in an organization
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 14 Influence Strategies Retribution through intimidation (pressure) or coercion (threaten) Reciprocity through ingratiation (obligate) or bargaining (exchange) Reason through appeal to values (general principles) or presenting facts (merits and needs)
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 15 When to Use Retribution Influencer has complete power Commitment and quality not important Tight time constraints Serious violations Specific, unambiguous requests Resistance to request is likely
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 16 When To Use Reciprocity Needs are specific and short term Established exchange norms exist There is adequate time for negotiating Parties viewed as trustworthy Commitment to broad values not critical Parties mutually dependent
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 17 When To Use Reason There is adequate time for extensive discussion Common goals/values Parties share mutual respect Parties share ongoing relationship
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 18 Neutralizing Retribution Strategies Use countervailing power to shift dependence to interdependence Confront the exploiting individual directly Actively resist
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 19 Neutralizing Reciprocity Strategies Examine the intent of any gift or favor-giving activity Confront individuals who are using manipulative bargaining tactics Refuse to bargain with individuals who use high- pressure tactics
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 20 Neutralizing Reason Strategies Explain the adverse effects of compliance on performance Defend your personal rights Firmly refuse to comply with the request
Model of Power and Influence SOURCES OF PERSONAL POWER: Expertise Personal Attraction Effort Legitimacy Selection of Proper Influence Strategy Influence over Others SOURCES OF POSITION POWER: Centrality Criticality Visibility Flexibility Relevance Power of an Individual Assertive Responses to Inappropriate Influence Attempts Increasing Authority via Upward Influence Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 21
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 22 Gaining Power and Influence Behavioral Guidelines Enhance your personal power Increase centrality and criticality of your position Increase the latitude and flexibility of your job Increase the visibility of your job performance Increase the relevance of your tasks
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 23 Gaining Power and Influence Behavioral Guidelines Use reason, reciprocity, and retribution influence strategies when and where appropriate Neutralize reciprocal and retribution influence strategies as needed Sell your issues to senior managers Perform in ways that benefit your boss
Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 24 Dr. Brilliant vs. the Devil of Ambition Brilliant advice: Push the envelope. Get eclectic. Feel as much as you can. Mix philosophy with a love of God and a love of work. Take your job, not yourself, seriously. Just look. The answer to What am I doing here? is obvious. From Harriet Rubin, Dr. Brilliant vs. the Devil of Ambition. Fast Company, October 2000, 39:
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Chapter 6: Motivation You want me to do what?. Copyright © 2002, Prentice Hall 2 Motivating Employees: Objectives Diagnose work-performance problems Develop.
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