nationalism The nationalism that is practiced in northern Ireland is the Ulster nationalism. The Ulster unionist party dominates northern Ireland. Ulster nationalism is a name given to a school of thought in Northern Irish politics that seeks the independence of northern Ireland from the United Kingdom without becoming part of the republic of Ireland. Ulster nationalism represented a reaction from within Unionism and Loyalism to the uncertain position offered to the union by the British government.
Origins of Ulster Began in 1946 when W. F. McCoy (a former cabinet in Government of Northern Ireland) advocated the Dominion of Ulster unionist Party. He felt that the uncertain constitutional state of Northern Ireland made it vulnerable. The term Ulster derives from one of the four traditional provinces; name is used to refer to Northern Ireland within unionism and Ulster loyalism. He wanted to use the Ulster nationalism as a way to safeguard Northern Ireland's relationship with the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland peace process subsequent political developments Belfast (or Good Friday) Agreement) The Troubles(PIRA) ceasefire
Government Northern Ireland WAS an integral part of the United Kingdom, but under the terms of the Government of Ireland Act in 1920, it had a semiautonomous government. In 1972, however, after three years of sectarian violence between Protestants and Catholics that resulted in more than 400 dead and thousands injured, Britain suspended the Ulster parliament. The Ulster counties were governed directly from London after an attempt to return certain powers to an elected assembly in Belfast. As a result of the Good Friday Agreement of 1998, a new coalition government was formed on Dec. 2, 1999, with the British government formally transferring governing power to the Northern Irish parliament. David Trimble, Protestant leader of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) and winner of the 1998 Nobel Peace Prize, became first minister. The government has been suspended four times since then; it has remained suspended since Oct. 14, Judicial court
Northern Ireland WAS part of the United Kingdom, but under the terms of the Government of Ireland Act in 1920, it had a semiautonomous government. However, in 1972 after three years of violence between Protestant and Catholic, the United Kingdom suspended the Ulster parliament The Good Friday Agreement of 1998 also known as the Belfast Agreement was a major political development in Northern Ireland peace process. As a result of the Good Friday Agreement of 1998, a new coalition government was formed on Dec. 2, 1999, with the British government formally transferring governing power to the Northern Irish parliament.
Ulster was part of Catholic Ireland until the reign of Elizabeth I (1558–1603) when, after suppressing three Irish rebellions, the Crown confiscated lands in Ireland and settled the Scots Presbyterians in Ulster. A rebellion in 1641–1651, brutally crushed by Oliver Cromwell, resulted in the settlement of Anglican Englishmen in Ulster. Subsequent political policy favoring Protestants and disadvantaging Catholics encouraged further Protestant settlement in Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland did not separate from the South until William Gladstone presented, in 1886, his proposal for home rule in Ireland. The Protestants in the North feared domination by the Catholic majority. Industry, moreover, was concentrated in the North and dependent on the British market. When World War I began, civil war threatened between the regions. Northern Ireland, however, did not become a political entity until the six counties accepted the Home Rule Bill of This set up a semiautonomous parliament in Belfast and a Crown- appointed governor advised by a cabinet of the prime minister and 8 ministers, as well as a 12-member representation in the House of Commons in London.
Hostilities Between Catholic and Protestant Communities Mount When the Republic of Ireland gained sovereignty in 1922, relations improved between North and South Irish Republican Army (IRA), outlawed in recent years, continued the struggle to end the partition of Ireland. In 1966–1969, rioting and street fighting between Protestants and Catholics occurred in Londonderry, fomented by extremist nationalist Protestants, who feared the Catholics might attain a local majority, and by Catholics demonstrating for civil rights. These confrontations became known as the Troubles. The religious communities, Catholic and Protestant, became hostile armed camps British troops were brought in to separate them but they became a target of Catholics, particularly by the IRA, which by this time had turned into a full-fledged terrorist movement. The goal of the IRA was to eject the British and unify Northern Ireland with the Irish Republic to the south. The Protestants remained tenaciously loyal to the United Kingdom, and various Protestant terrorist organizations pursued the Unionist cause through violence. Various attempts at representational government and power-sharing foundered during the 1970s, and both sides were further polarized. Direct rule from London and the presence of British troops failed to stop the violence.
Mairead Corrigan and Betty Williams, founders of the Community of Peace People, a nonsectarian organization dedicated to creating peace in Northern Ireland. Intermittent violence continued, however, and on Aug. 27, 1979, an IRA bomb killed Lord Mountbatten as he was sailing off southern Ireland. This incident heightened tensions. Catholic protests over the death of IRA hunger striker Bobby Sands in 1981 fueled more violence. Riots, sniper fire, and terrorist attacks killed more than 3,200 people between 1969 and Among the attempts at reconciliation undertaken during the 1980s was the Anglo-Irish Agreement (1985), which, to the dismay of Unionists, marked the first time the Republic of Ireland had been given an official consultative role in the affairs of the province. In 1997, Northern Ireland made a significant step in the direction of stemming sectarian strife. The first formal peace talks began on Oct. 6 with representatives of eight major Northern Irish political parties participating, a feat that in itself required three years of negotiations. Two smaller Protestant parties, including extremist Ian Paisley's Democratic Unionists, boycotted the talks. Sinn Fein, the political wing of the IRA, won two seats in the British parliament Although the election strengthened the IRA's political legitimacy, it was the IRA's resumption of the 17- month cease-fire, which had collapsed in Feb. 1996, that gained them a place at the negotiating table.
A landmark settlement, the Good Friday Agreement of April 10, 1998, came after 19 months of intensive negotiations. The accord called for Protestants to share political power with the minority Catholics, and it gave the Republic of Ireland a voice in Northern Irish affairs. In turn, Catholics were to suspend the goal of a united Irelanda territorial claim that was the raison d'être of the IRA and was written into the Irish Republic's constitution unless the largely Protestant North voted in favor of such an arrangement, an unlikely occurrence. The resounding commitment to the settlement was demonstrated in a dual referendum on May 22, 1998: the North approved the accord by a vote of 71% to 29%, and in the Irish Republic 94% favored it. In October, the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to John Hume and David Trimble, leaders of the largest Catholic and Protestant political parties, an incentive for all sides to ensure that this time the peace would last.
A New Coalition Government In Dec the rival Northern Ireland politicians agreed on the organization and contents of the new coalition government, but in June 1999, the peace process again hit an impasse when the IRA refused to disarm prior to the Assembly of Northern Ireland's new provincial cabinet. Sinn Fein insisted that the IRA would only begin giving up its illegal weapons after the formation of the new government; Unionists demanded disarmament first. As a result, the Ulster Unionists boycotted the Assembly session that would have nominated the cabinet to run the new coalition government. The nascent Northern Irish government was stillborn in July By end of November, David Trimble, leader of the Ulster Unionists, abandoned the no guns, no government position and took a difficult leap of faith in agreeing to form a government prior to Sinn Fein's disarmament. If the IRA did not begin the destruction of their weapons by Jan. 31, 2000 the Ulster Unionists threatened to withdraw from the Northern Irish parliament, shutting down the new government. With the compromise, this government was quickly formed, and on Dec. 2, 1999, the British government formally transferred governing power to the Northern Irish parliament. By the deadline, Sinn Fein had made little progress toward disarmament =British government suspended parliament on Feb. 12, 2000, and once again imposed direct rule. In July 2001, after issuing one last ultimatum to the IRA to begin destroying its weapons stores, Ulster Unionist leader Trimble resigned his post as first minister.
A New Coalition Government The Council on Foreign Relations has estimated that Protestant paramilitary groups have been responsible for 30% of the civilian deaths in the Northern Irish conflict. The two main Protestant vigilante groups are the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) and the Ulster Defence Association (UDA). Strongest during the 1970s, their ranks have since diminished. While Protestant paramilitaries have observed a cease-fire since the IRA declared one, none of these groups have made any moves toward surrendering their weapons as stipulated by the Good Friday Agreement. Following Trimble's departure, the IRA offered another vague and open-ended disarmament plan, only to withdraw it. Oct. 23, days before Britain was to suspend the Assembly, Sinn Fein leader Gerry Adams dramatically announced that the IRA had indeed begun disarming. As a result, Trimble was reelected as first minister. British and Irish leaders hoped that Protestant paramilitary groups would also begin to surrender their weapons
Britain Resumes Direct Rule Of Northern Ireland Oct. 14, the British government again assumed direct rule of Northern Ireland, after the Unionists threatened to quit the Assembly in protest of suspected spying activity by the IRA. March and April 2003, negotiations were again used to reinstate the Northern Ireland Assembly. But Sinn Fein's vague language, weakly pledging that its strategies and disciplines will not be inconsistent with the Good Friday Agreement, caused Tony Blair to challenge Sinn Fein to make a clear, unambiguous pledge to renounce using the paramilitary for political means In Nov legislative elections, the Ulster Unionists and other moderates lost out to Northern Ireland's extremist parties: Ian Paisley's Democratic Unionists and Sinn Fein. Power sharing between these antithetical parties was out of the question. A $50 million bank robbery in Dec was linked to the IRA, and Sinn Fein's legitimacy as a political organization suffered a severe setback. The brutal murder in Jan of Belfast Catholic Robert McCartney by the IRA, and the campaign by his five sisters to hold the IRA accountable, further tarnished the IRA's standing, even in Catholic communities that had once been IRA strongholds.
Britain Resumes Direct Rule Of Northern Ireland July 28, 2005, the IRA announced that it was entering a new era in which it would unequivocally relinquish violence, give up its arms, and pursue its aims exclusively through political means. Some Protestant groups, however, continued to doubt the veracity of the IRA's claims. In Feb. 2006, the Independent Monitoring Commission (IMC), a watchdog agency monitoring Northern Irish paramilitary groups, reported that although the IRA seems to be moving in the right direction, dissident republican paramilitaries are still engaged in violence and crime. On May 15, Northern Ireland's political parties were given six months (to Nov. 24) to come up with a power- sharing government or else sovereignty would revert indefinitely to the British government. Provisional Irish Republican Army
An Agreement For A Power- Sharing Government Shortly after parliamentary elections in March 2007, Gerry Adams, the leader of Sinn Fein, and Rev. Ian Paisley, the head of the Democratic Unionist Party, met face to face for the first time and hashed out an agreement for a power-sharing government. The historic deal was put into place in May, when Paisley and McGuinness were sworn in as leader and deputy leader, respectively, of the Northern Ireland executive government, thus ending direct rule from London. Rev. Ian Paisley Gerry Adams