Learning Definition : Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience
Definitions: Learning is: 1.a persisting change in human performance or performance potential... (brought) about as a result of the learners interaction with the environment (Driscoll, 1994, pp. 8-9). 2.the relatively permanent change in a persons knowledge or behavior due to experience (Mayer, 1982, p. 1040). 3. an enduring change in behavior, or in the capacity to behave in a given fashion, which results from practice or other forms of experience (Shuell, 1986, p. 412).
Components It involves change The change must be ingrained Some form of experience is necessary for learning
Learning Theory Q: How do people learn? A: Nobody really knows. But there are 6 main theories: Behaviorism Cognitivism Social Learning Theory Social Constructivism Multiple Intelligences Brain-Based Learning
Behaviorism Classical Conditioning - Pavlov Classical Conditioning - Pavlov S R A stimulus is presented in order to get a response:
Behaviorism Classical Conditioning - Pavlov Classical Conditioning - Pavlov SUS UR CSUS CR
Behaviorism Operant Conditioning - Skinner Operant Conditioning - Skinner The response is made first, then reinforcement follows.
Behaviorism Learning is defined by the outward expression of new behaviors Focuses solely on observable behaviors A biological basis for learning Learning is context-independent Classical & Operant Conditioning –Reflexes (Pavlovs Dogs) –Feedback/Reinforcement (Skinners Pigeon Box)
Behaviorism in the Classroom Rewards and punishments Responsibility for student learning rests squarely with the teacher Lecture-based, highly structured
Critiques of Behaviorism Does not account for processes taking place in the mind that cannot be observed Advocates for passive student learning in a teacher-centric environment One size fits all Knowledge itself is given and absolute Programmed instruction & teacher-proofing
Learning Theory Behaviorism Behaviorism Social Learning Theory Social Learning Theory Cognitive Learning Theory Cognitive Learning Theory
Social Learning Theory (SLT) Grew out of Cognitivism A. Bandura (1973) Learning takes place through observation and sensorial experiences Imitation is the sincerest form of flattery SLT is the basis of the movement against violence in media & video games
Process to determine the influence a model will have on an individual Attention Process Retention Process Motor Reproduction Process Reinforcement Process (((( Slides with***** Not there in the exam)))))
Methods of Shaping Positive Reinforcement Negative reinforcement PunishmentExtinction
Social Learning Theory Learning From Models - Albert Bandura 1. Attend to pertinent clues 2. Code for memory (store a visual image) 3. Retain in memory 4. Accurately reproduce the observed activity 5. Possess sufficient motivation to apply new learning
Social Learning Theory Research indicates that the following factors influence the strength of learning from models: 1. How much power the model seems to have 2. How capable the model seems to be 3. How nurturing (caring) the model seems to be 4. How similar the learner perceives self and model 5. How many models the learner observes
Social Learning Theory *** Four interrelated processes establish and strengthen identification with the model: 1. Children want to be like the model 2. Children believe they are like the model 3. Children experience emotions like those the model is feeling. 4. Children act like the model.
Social Learning Theory*** Through identification, children come to believe they have the same characteristics as the model. When they identify with a nurturant and competent model, children feel pleased and proud. When they identify with an inadequate model, children feel unhappy and insecure.
SLT in the Classroom*** Collaborative learning and group work Modeling responses and expectations Opportunities to observe experts in action
Critiques of Social Learning Theory Does not take into account individuality, context, and experience as mediating factors Suggests students learn best as passive receivers of sensory stimuli, as opposed to being active learners Emotions and motivation not considered important or connected to learning
Social Constructivism**** Grew out of and in response to Cognitivism, framed around metacognition Knowledge is actively constructed Learning is… –A search for meaning by the learner –Contextualized –An inherently social activity –Dialogic and recursive –The responsibility of the learner Lev Vygotsky –Social Learning Zone of Proximal Development
Social Constructivism in the Classroom **** Journaling Experiential activities Personal focus Collaborative & cooperative learning
Critiques of Social*** Constructivism Suggests that knowledge is neither given nor absolute Often seen as less rigorous than traditional approaches to instruction Does not fit well with traditional age grouping and rigid terms/semesters
Multiple Intelligences (MI)*** Grew out of Constructivism, framed around metacognition H. Gardner (1983 to present) All people are born with eight intelligences: Enables students to leverage their strengths and purposefully target and develop their weaknesses 1. Verbal-Linguistic 5. Musical 2. Visual-Spatial 6. Naturalist 3. Logical-Mathematical 7. Interpersonal 4. Kinesthetic 8. Intrapersonal
MI in the Classroom*** Delivery of instruction via multiple mediums Student-centered classroom Authentic Assessment Self-directed learning
Critiques of MI*** Lack of quantifiable evidence that MI exist Lack of evidence that use of MI as a curricular and methodological approach has any discernable impact on learning Suggestive of a departure from core curricula and standards
Brain-Based Learning (BBL)*** Grew out of Neuroscience & Constructivism D. Souza, N. Caine & G. Caine, E. Jensen (1980s to present) 12 governing principles 1. Brain is a parallel processor 7. Focused attention & peripheral perception 2. Whole body learning 8. Conscious & unconscious processes 3. A search for meaning 9. Several types of memory 4. Patterning 10. Embedded learning sticks 5. Emotions are critical 11. Challenge & threat 6. Processing of parts and wholes 12. Every brain is unique
BBL in the Classroom*** Opportunities for group learning Regular environmental changes A multi-sensory environment Opportunities for self- expression and making personal connections to content Community-based learning
Critiques of BBL*** Research conducted by neuroscientists, not teachers & educational researchers Lack of understanding of the brain itself makes brain-based learning questionable Individual principles have been scientifically questioned