The United States of America the state in the North America. The area km ² (the fourth place in the world on territory). The population more than 309 million persons (the third place). Capital the city of Washington. The United States border on Canada, Mexico, Russia. Are washed by Pacific ocean, Atlantic ocean. Administrative division: 50 states and federal district of Columbia, also are in submission of the USA a number of island territories. The USA have been formed in 1776 at association of thirteen British colonies which have declared the independence.
The basic territory of the USA (named continental states) is located on North American continent and stretched from Atlantic ocean in the east to Pacific ocean in the west. In the south of the USA border on Mexico, in the north with Canada. Besides, the structure of the USA includes 2 more staff. In the extreme northwest of continent there is the State of Alaska also adjoining on Canada. In Pacific ocean there is the State of Hawaii. The border with Russia passes through Bering strait. The USA a number of islands in Caribbean sea (for example, Puerto Rico) and in Pacific ocean (American Samoa, Miduej, Guam, etc.) also belongs.
Great Lakes system of fresh-water lakes in the North America, in territory of the USA and Canada. Includes a number of the large and average reservoirs connected by the rivers and passages. The area about 245,2 thousand in km ², volume of water of 22,7 thousand in km ³. To actually Great Lakes carry five largest: Top, Guron, Michigan, Erie and Ontario. Average lakes are connected with them some. Lakes concern pool of Atlantic ocean. A drain on the river of Sacred Lavrentija. Great Lakes
Since the country is located in a large area, it contains virtually all climatic zones. Most of the United States is located in the temperate zone to the south dominated by a subtropical climate, Hawaii and southern Florida are in the tropics and the north of Alaska belongs to the polar regions. Great Plains to the west of the 100th meridian, referred to as semi-desert, Great Basin and the area around it are arid and coastal areas of California - a Mediterranean climate. Type of climate within a zone can vary significantly depending on terrain, proximity to the ocean and other factors. The main component of the U.S. Climate is a high-altitude jet stream - strong air currents that bring moisture from the north Pacific. Saturated with moisture from the Pacific winds actively irrigate the U.S. west coast. Frequent tornadoes are known feature of the climate of North America, the United States ahead of any other country in the number of tornadoes. Hurricanes are common in the United States. East Coast, Island of Hawaii, and especially southern U.S., bordering the Gulf of Mexico, the most affected by this disaster
The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1787, defines state powers transferred to the U.S. federal government. The powers not defined by the federal government by the Constitution, made U.S. states. In the United States Constitution is the principle of separation of powers: federal government has legislative, executive and judicial branches, acting independently of each other. The highest legislative body - the bicameral United States Congress: lower house - the House of Representatives, the upper chamber - the Senate. The highest executive body - President of the United States. President - Head of State, Chief of the armed forces. There is a vice president. The supreme body of the judiciary - the Supreme Court of the United States. The main political parties - Republican and the Democratic Party. There are many smaller parties.
World's largest economy. Many natural resources, including energy and raw materials. High-tech manufacturing. Development of scientific research. Well-developed services sector, competitive industry. Multinational companies such as «Ford», «General Motors» and Exxon. The leading manufacturer of software. A good system of higher education, especially in high technology. American businesses thrive thanks to the wide spread of American culture in the world. The world's largest exporter of goods. Political stability, qualified staff. Recently, a reduction in the number of jobs in the industry. Globalization, the leakage of jobs to countries with cheap labor (in 1945 almost 50% of world production came from the U.S. and in the 1990s. - 25%). Fierce competition in the field of technology with the countries of East Asia and the European Union. External debt exceeds $ 14 trillion U.S. dollars.
Native American tribes inhabited the territory of the United States about 10 thousand years ago, and their descendants were the predominant ethnic component to the end of the XVII century. Modern people - the descendants of relatively recent (XVII-XX centuries) immigrants from Europe (mainly Western), and Africa. It should be noted that the full right to be called Americans receive only the children of immigrants born in the United States. The country has maintained a clear distinction between foreigners and natives, between which there is a significant cultural and linguistic distance. This difference, however, the internal division is limited. Americans United States - a diverse, heterogeneous nation with conflicting racial composition. Dominant in all respects and regions (except Hawaii) is currently the Europoid race - came from the United Kingdom, Germany, Ireland and other European countries. Further distinguished African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, Indians and others, which account for more than a third of the population.
The most common native language in the United States - English. They, like their mother tongue, hold million people from 293 million Americans (73.5%). Spanish is the mother tongue of 28 million U.S. residents (10.7%). Followed by: French ( ), Chinese (1,499,635), German (1,382,615), Turkish (about 1,172,615), Tagalog ( million), Vietnamese (1,009,625), Italian ( ) and Korean ( ). Russian language occupies 11 th place in the number of carriers in the U.S. - over 700 thousand (0.24%). The largest number of Russian- speaking population in the State of New York ( , or 30.98% of all Russian speakers), at the very least - in Wyoming (170, or 0.02%). The highest proportion of Russian speakers - in Alaska - about 3% or less understand the Russian language, and about 8.5% of the population are Orthodox Christians. This is a consequence of past supplies throughout the state of Russia. In the state of Hawaii and Hawaiian English language have official status. Some of the island territories also provide formal recognition of indigenous languages, along with English.
The First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, adopted on December 15, 1791, declares the separation of church and state that the founding fathers understood as a prohibition on state establishment of religion, like the one that took place in the UK. According to a study conducted in 2002 Pew Global Attitudes Project, United States - the only developed countries, where most people say that religion is "very important" in their lives. The U.S. government does not keep official statistics on religion. According to the CIA World Factbook for 2007, 51.3% of the U.S. population consider themselves Protestants, 23.9% - Catholics, 12.1% do not belong to any denomination, 1.7% - the Mormons, and 1.6% - members of other Christian denominations, 1.7% - the Jews, 0.7% - Buddhists, 0.6% - Muslim 2.5% - other or not specified, 4% - atheists.
The state consists of 50 states that are equal subjects of the federation, the Federal District of Columbia and the dependent territories. Each state has its own constitution, legislative, executive and judicial power. Most of the names of states derived from the names of Indian tribes and the names of the kings of England and France. States are divided into districts - the smaller administrative units, less than the state and not less than the city. In all there are 3141 District. Powers of district administration and the relationship with the municipal authorities located within their residential areas vary greatly from state to state. Local life settlements governed municipalities. Established a special status for unincorporated areas.
At the capital of the new state after the American Revolution, claimed many of the city. So in 1790 it was decided to build a new city near the Potomac River. The capital was named Washington in honor of the first president, George Washington. The first architect who planned and designed the city, was the Frenchman Pierre Langfang. Washington - the capital of the United States since Washington as a separate city was abolished as a result of administrative reform in 1873, so the capital of the United States officially called District of Columbia. According to the U.S. Constitution and the Law on Residence, DC has a special status as the capital of the federal state. Area thousand km ². Population: Within the Federal District of 602 thousand inhabitants. With the suburbs (in Maryland and Virginia) million inhabitants.