Example: Globus Security Architecture Diagram of Globus security architecture.
Focus of Control Three approaches for protection against security threats a)Protection against invalid operations b)Protection against unauthorized invocations c)Protection against unauthorized users
Layering of Security Mechanisms (1) The logical organization of a distributed system into several layers.
Layering of Security Mechanisms (2) Several sites connected through a wide-area backbone service.
Distribution of Security Mechanisms The principle of RISSC as applied to secure distributed systems.
Cryptography (1) Intruders and eavesdroppers in communication.
Cryptography (2) Notation used in this chapter. NotationDescription K A, B Secret key shared by A and B Public key of A Private key of A
Symmetric Cryptosystems: DES (1) a)The principle of DES b)Outline of one encryption round
Symmetric Cryptosystems: DES (2) Details of per-round key generation in DES.
Public-Key Cryptosystems: RSA Generating the private and public key requires four steps: 1.Choose two very large prime numbers, p and q 2.Compute n = p x q and z = (p – 1) x (q – 1) 3.Choose a number d that is relatively prime to z 4.Compute the number e such that e x d = 1 mod z
Key Distribution (2) Public-key distribution (see also [menezes.a96]).
Secure Group Management Securely admitting a new group member.
Capabilities and Attribute Certificates (1) A capability in Amoeba. 48 bits24 bits8 bits48 bits Server portObjectRightsCheck
Capabilities and Attribute Certificates (2) Generation of a restricted capability from an owner capability.
Delegation (1) The general structure of a proxy as used for delegation.
Delegation (2) Using a proxy to delegate and prove ownership of access rights.
Example: Kerberos (1) Authentication in Kerberos.
Example: Kerberos (2) Setting up a secure channel in Kerberos.
SESAME Components Overview of components in SESAME.
Privilege Attribute Certificates (PACs) The organization of a SESAME Privilege Attribute Certificate. FieldDescription Issuer domainName the security domain of the issuer Issuer identityName the PAS in the issuer's domain Serial numberA unique number for this PAC, generated by the PAS Creation timeUTC time when this PAC was created ValidityTime interval when this PAC is valid Time periodsAdditional time periods outside which the PAC is invalid Algorithm IDIdentifier of the algorithm used to sign this PAC Signature valueThe signature placed on the PAC PrivilegesA list of (attribute, value)-pairs describing privileges Certificate informationAdditional information to be used by the PVF MiscellaneousCurrently used for auditing purposes only Protection methodsFields to control how the PAC i s used
Electronic Payment Systems (1) Payment systems based on direct payment between customer and merchant. a)Paying in cash. b)Using a check. c)Using a credit card.
Electronic Payment Systems (2) Payment systems based on money transfer between banks. a)Payment by money order. b)Payment through debit order.
Privacy (1) Information hiding in a traditional cash payment. MerchantCustomerDateAmountItem MerchantFullPartialFull CustomerFull BankNone ObserverFullPartialFull
Privacy (2) Information hiding in a traditional credit-card system (see also [camp.lj96a]) MerchantCustomerDateAmountItem MerchantFull CustomerFull BankFull None ObserverFullPartialFull Party Information
E-cash The principle of anonymous electronic cash using blind signatures.
Secure Electronic Transactions (SET) The different steps in SET.