Layered Protocols (1) Layers, interfaces, and protocols in the OSI model. 2-1
Layered Protocols (2) A typical message as it appears on the network. 2-2
Data Link Layer Discussion between a receiver and a sender in the data link layer. 2-3
Client-Server TCP a)Normal operation of TCP. b)Transactional TCP. 2-4
Middleware Protocols An adapted reference model for networked communication. 2-5
Conventional Procedure Call a)Parameter passing in a local procedure call: the stack before the call to read b)The stack while the called procedure is active
Client and Server Stubs Principle of RPC between a client and server program.
Steps of a Remote Procedure Call 1.Client procedure calls client stub in normal way 2.Client stub builds message, calls local OS 3.Client's OS sends message to remote OS 4.Remote OS gives message to server stub 5.Server stub unpacks parameters, calls server 6.Server does work, returns result to the stub 7.Server stub packs it in message, calls local OS 8.Server's OS sends message to client's OS 9.Client's OS gives message to client stub 10.Stub unpacks result, returns to client
Passing Value Parameters (1) Steps involved in doing remote computation through RPC 2-8
Passing Value Parameters (2) a)Original message on the Pentium b)The message after receipt on the SPARC c)The message after being inverted. The little numbers in boxes indicate the address of each byte
Doors The principle of using doors as IPC mechanism.
Asynchronous RPC (1) a)The interconnection between client and server in a traditional RPC b)The interaction using asynchronous RPC 2-12
Asynchronous RPC (2) A client and server interacting through two asynchronous RPCs 2-13
Writing a Client and a Server The steps in writing a client and a server in DCE RPC. 2-14
Binding a Client to a Server Client-to-server binding in DCE. 2-15
Distributed Objects Common organization of a remote object with client-side proxy. 2-16
Binding a Client to an Object a)(a) Example with implicit binding using only global references b)(b) Example with explicit binding using global and local references Distr_object* obj_ref;//Declare a systemwide object reference obj_ref = …;// Initialize the reference to a distributed object obj_ref-> do_something();// Implicitly bind and invoke a method (a) Distr_object objPref;//Declare a systemwide object reference Local_object* obj_ptr;//Declare a pointer to local objects obj_ref = …;//Initialize the reference to a distributed object obj_ptr = bind(obj_ref);//Explicitly bind and obtain a pointer to the local proxy obj_ptr -> do_something();//Invoke a method on the local proxy (b)
Parameter Passing The situation when passing an object by reference or by value. 2-18
The DCE Distributed-Object Model a)Distributed dynamic objects in DCE. b)Distributed named objects 2-19
Persistence and Synchronicity in Communication (1) General organization of a communication system in which hosts are connected through a network 2-20
Persistence and Synchronicity in Communication (2) Persistent communication of letters back in the days of the Pony Express.
Persistence and Synchronicity in Communication (3) a)Persistent asynchronous communication b)Persistent synchronous communication
Persistence and Synchronicity in Communication (4) c)Transient asynchronous communication d)Receipt-based transient synchronous communication
Persistence and Synchronicity in Communication (5) e)Delivery-based transient synchronous communication at message delivery f)Response-based transient synchronous communication
Berkeley Sockets (1) Socket primitives for TCP/IP. PrimitiveMeaning SocketCreate a new communication endpoint BindAttach a local address to a socket ListenAnnounce willingness to accept connections AcceptBlock caller until a connection request arrives ConnectActively attempt to establish a connection SendSend some data over the connection ReceiveReceive some data over the connection CloseRelease the connection
Berkeley Sockets (2) Connection-oriented communication pattern using sockets.
The Message-Passing Interface (MPI) Some of the most intuitive message-passing primitives of MPI. PrimitiveMeaning MPI_bsendAppend outgoing message to a local send buffer MPI_sendSend a message and wait until copied to local or remote buffer MPI_ssendSend a message and wait until receipt starts MPI_sendrecvSend a message and wait for reply MPI_isendPass reference to outgoing message, and continue MPI_issendPass reference to outgoing message, and wait until receipt starts MPI_recvReceive a message; block if there are none MPI_irecvCheck if there is an incoming message, but do not block
Message-Queuing Model (1) Four combinations for loosely-coupled communications using queues. 2-26
Message-Queuing Model (2) Basic interface to a queue in a message-queuing system. PrimitiveMeaning PutAppend a message to a specified queue GetBlock until the specified queue is nonempty, and remove the first message PollCheck a specified queue for messages, and remove the first. Never block. Notify Install a handler to be called when a message is put into the specified queue.
General Architecture of a Message-Queuing System (1) The relationship between queue-level addressing and network-level addressing.
General Architecture of a Message-Queuing System (2) The general organization of a message-queuing system with routers. 2-29
Message Brokers The general organization of a message broker in a message-queuing system. 2-30
Example: IBM MQSeries General organization of IBM's MQSeries message-queuing system. 2-31
Channels Some attributes associated with message channel agents. AttributeDescription Transport typeDetermines the transport protocol to be used FIFO deliveryIndicates that messages are to be delivered in the order they are sent Message lengthMaximum length of a single message Setup retry count Specifies maximum number of retries to start up the remote MCA Delivery retriesMaximum times MCA will try to put received message into queue
Message Transfer (1) The general organization of an MQSeries queuing network using routing tables and aliases.
Message Transfer (2) Primitives available in an IBM MQSeries MQI PrimitiveDescription MQopenOpen a (possibly remote) queue MQcloseClose a queue MQputPut a message into an opened queue MQgetGet a message from a (local) queue
Data Stream (1) Setting up a stream between two processes across a network.
Data Stream (2) Setting up a stream directly between two devices
Data Stream (3) An example of multicasting a stream to several receivers.
Specifying QoS (1) A flow specification. Characteristics of the InputService Required maximum data unit size (bytes) Token bucket rate (bytes/sec) Toke bucket size (bytes) Maximum transmission rate (bytes/sec) Loss sensitivity (bytes) Loss interval ( sec) Burst loss sensitivity (data units) Minimum delay noticed ( sec) Maximum delay variation ( sec) Quality of guarantee
Specifying QoS (2) The principle of a token bucket algorithm.
Setting Up a Stream The basic organization of RSVP for resource reservation in a distributed system.
Synchronization Mechanisms (1) The principle of explicit synchronization on the level data units.
Synchronization Mechanisms (2) The principle of synchronization as supported by high-level interfaces. 2-41