Презентация на тему: " First of all, please, study the new words using their determination Drop- to fall or allow to fall Lucrative - profitable Eligible - fit Enroll – register." — Транскрипт:
First of all, please, study the new words using their determination Drop- to fall or allow to fall Lucrative - profitable Eligible - fit Enroll – register Mandatory – obligatory, compulsory Arbitrary – not absolute Charter – a formal document
Stature – degree of development Appropriate - fitting Currently – of the immediate presence Emphasize – to stress Reduction – smaller in size Lack - shortage Repair – to restore Equipment – set of tools, devices Pursue – to follow closely, accompany
Vocational - professional Subsidize – to add or support Roughly – in a violent manner Wield – to handle or use Profit – benefit, advantage Ownership - legal right of possession Acute – of an extreme importance Merit – worth or superior quality Commitment – obligation, promise Scholar – a learned person Facilities – ease of action or performance
Educational system of Kazakhstan Process of Education Kindergarten Primary school Lower secondary school Higher secondary school Tertiary Institutions
Following independence from the Soviet Union a major economic depression cut "public financing" for education in Kazakhstan, "which dropped from 6% of gross domestic product in 1991 to about 3% in 1994, before rising to 4% in 1999." Elementary- and secondary-school teachers remain badly underpaid; in 1993 more than 30,000 teachers (or about one-seventh of the 1990 teaching staff) left education, many of them to seek more lucrative employment.gross domestic product
In 1994 Kazakhstan had 8,575 elementary and secondary schools (grades one through twelve) attended by approximately 3.2 million students, and 244 specialized secondary schools with about 222,000 students. In 1992 about 51 percent of eligible children were attending some 8,500 preschools in Kazakhstan. In 1994 some 272,100 students were enrolled in the republic's sixty-one institutes of higher learning. 54 percent of the students were Kazakh, and 31 percent were Russian.
Kazakhstan's 1995 constitution provides mandatory, socialized secondary school education Citizens compete for socialized institutions of higher learning. Private education is increasing in the country, with about 5% of students enrolled in the private schools that remain largely under arbitrary state control.
In 2000, the Government of Kazakhstan joined the governments of the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan, and the Aga Khan to establish the worlds first internationally chartered institution of higher education, the University of Central Asia (UCA). KazakhstanKyrgyz RepublicTajikistan the Aga KhanUniversity of Central Asia(UCA) The UCA will have three campuses of equal size and stature in each of the founding countries.
The Kazakh campus is under construction in Tekeli in the Zhedysu region, 35 minutes east of the regional capital Taldykorgan, and three hours by car from Almaty. The UCA will benefit from the resources of the Aga Khan Development Network to offer an internationally recognized standard of higher education in Central Asia. TekeliZhedysu Taldykorgan AlmatyAga Khan Development Network Central Asia Currently, the University operates a School of Professional and Continuing Education (SPCE), with a School of Undergraduate Studies and a Graduate School of Development in the process of being established.School of Professional and Continuing Education(SPCE) School of Undergraduate StudiesGraduate School of Development
In 2003 Asian Development Bank appropriated $600,000 in technical assistance in a grant to help education in KazakhstanAsian Development Bank The United States provided 137 Peace Corps members to "work in education and NGO development" in 2004.United StatesPeace CorpsNGO
Kazakhstan has a 99.1% literacy rate for males and 97.7% for females as of 1999 "The future of any state depends on its level of education. The high level of education of the nation is a key to success of any country." (United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice,12– 13 October 2006)United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice
Kindergarten The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan protects the right to access to kindergarten. Children typically start kindergarten at age 5.Constitution Kazakhstan kindergarten
As of 2004, there were 100 kindergartens in the nation (83 public, 4 directly under the Ministry of Education, and 13 private) and children enrolled in kindergartens (or 63% of the total number of 5-year and 6-year olds in the nation). kindergartens All kindergartens are currently expected to teach both Kazakh and Russian, and most emphasize one language over the other.kindergartens
One major problem has been the reduction of the number of kindergartens, due to the lack of state funding and virtually non-existence of private sources of money. There are also reported declines in the quality of kindergartens kindergartens including a lack of hot meal or low quality food served, and buildings in poor repair.
Primary school Primary school in Kazakhstan starts at age 6 and runs from years 1 – 5. Classes typically run in two sessions, from 8 until 1 and from 1 until 5, with students either going to class in the morning or in the afternoon. All primary schools are state-owned and primary and secondary education are constitutionally protected rights.4 The curriculum includes x, y and z.Primary schoolKazakhstan primary schools The curriculum for both primary and secondary school is established by the Ministry of Education, with little choice left up to the individual schools. Textbooks are given by government in the schools to the students.secondary school Primary school is provided free to all citizens and residents of Kazakhstan and parents typically pay only for extra-curricular activities such as sports programs, music programs, and sometimes lab equipment or other special equipment.Primary schoolKazakhstan
Lower secondary school Students continue in lower secondary school from grade 5 to year 9. This roughly corresponds to what is called in the USA, junior high school, or middle school. Typically a student in year 8 is 14–15 years old. The curriculum is a general education curriculum covering subjects like literature, student's first language, Russian or Kazakh language (depending on the language of the school in general), history, physics, mathematics, biology, chemistry, foreign language, and so on.
Higher secondary school Once leaving lower secondary school, there are three tracks available. Students are free to choose any track of higher secondary education but are required to pursue one track. Graduates of all three tracks are eligible to enter university.secondary school The first track is a general secondary school which covers grades and provides general education covering a variety of subjects. In addition, there are two curriculum tracks for vocational education: Initial vocational education which is provided by training schools and lycees, and secondary vocational education provided by colleges and trade schools.
Initial Training Schools are designed to train students in a skilled profession. The program is usually two or three years, (typically ages 16 – 18), but for some professional training four year programs are required. Students who graduate can go on to Colleges for advanced vocational training or attend university. The state provides costs of education from the budget.
Colleges give a program that provides both academic general education and advanced vocational education. Colleges, if licensed, can also provide initial vocational education. Programs last for three or four years (grades 10 – 12, 13). Accelerated programs exist for students who have already completed both general secondary education and initial vocational training in the same field. Graduates may go on to university or may begin working. As of the 1999 Budget Law being passed, colleges are state- owned and self financed. In principle however, all compulsory education (primary and secondary) is provided free of charge.
The curriculum for both primary and secondary school is established by the Ministry of Education, with little choice left up to the individual schools. Textbooks are sold in bookstores throughout the country and are purchased by the students themselves.secondary school Like primary school, secondary school is subsidized by the government and parents only pay for extra-curricular activities such as sports programs, music programs, and sometimes lab equipment or other special equipment.primary schoolsecondary school
Tertiary Institutions The universities, following the Russian system, focus entirely on teaching and do not engage in research. Students who are accepted to university at any level apply under a specific major, and the curriculum is set by the university (according to State legislation) for each major. For example, economics majors will all study in the same courses in the same order, separate from English majors who have a different curriculum. Some courses are required for a variety of majors and there is a possibility of switching majors but typically classes do not transfer to the new major and the student is expected to reenter in the new major as a first year.
The government is currently pursuing a program to adopt a credit-system which would allow students to study more easily internationally, and to add the possibility of a curriculum with electives and student-chosen courses. There are four levels of tertiary education in Kazakhstan: Bachelors degreetypically a four-year degree Specialist degree typically a five-year degree and more intensive than the bachelors Masters degreetypically a two year degree, roughly corresponding to the Western masters. Doctoral degree typically a five year program.
Universities are usually headed by a rector, appointed by the President of Kazakhstan, who wields considerable authority over the institution, approving all decisions including those regarding curriculum, personnel, and admission. Thus Kazakhstany universities are more centralized than their Western counterparts.
The top two universities in Kazakhstan Kazakhstan are al-Farabi Kazakh National University in Almatyal-Farabi Kazakh National University Almaty and Eurasian National University located in Astana.Eurasian National University Karaganda State University is also well-regarded.Karaganda State University
In addition, there are a few international universities such as KIMEP, which is a joint program, 40% owned by the government of Kazakhstan, but education is based on the Western system. The Kazakh-British Technical University and the Kazakh-American University represent joint projects between Kazakhstan and the UK and the USA, respectively. In all three institutions, the language of instruction is English. A number of specialty universities also exist.KIMEPKazakh-British Technical UniversityKazakh-American UniversityKazakhstan
Private universities, typically for-profit institutions, are subject to the same regulations regarding curriculum but are free to set tuition and salaries as they see fit. Public universities are subject to the same regulations as other government-owned organs, regarding not only fees and salaries, but also administrative structure, contracting and subcontracting, and ownership of property. State owned universities receive funding if their enrollment reaches 86,000 students or 34%. A small number of universities are financed through a budget line in the Republic budget, such as art academies or international universities.
Projects and Programs The Bolashak Scholarship of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, was created in 1993 by the decree of the President:Kazakhstan In Kazakhstans transition toward a market economy and the expansion of international contacts, there is an acute need for a workforce with advanced western education, and so, it is now necessary to send the most qualified youth to study in leading educational institutions in foreign countries.Kazakhstan
The Scholarship is merit-based and the selection process includes not only academic credentials, but also competence in the language of study, psychological testing and an interview process. Commitment to development of Kazakhstan and patriotism are factors as well. The final decision is made by the Republican Commission, chaired by the State Secretary and composed of the Ministers, members of Parliament, and members of the Office of the President. The Republican Commission also approves the country of study and program of study.Kazakhstan
The Scholarship requires that all recipients return to Kazakhstan after graduating and work for five years in Kazakhstan. The Scholarship pays for all costs related to education, including tuition and fees, costs of travel, and a living stipend. Scholars are expected to maintain academic excellence. In the US, this translates to a 3.0 GPA. Kazakhstan There are currently about 1,800 scholarship recipients studying abroad in 24 countries. About 1,700 were awarded the Scholarship in The most popular countries are the USA (about 700 students chosen in 2005), the UK (about 400 students chosen last year) and Russia (about 300 students chosen in 2005). Australia and Malaysia are two countries represented for the first time in 2005 and host 2 Bolashak Scholars each.
Transferring to a Credit System The government is currently pursuing a program to adopt a credit-system which would allow students to study more easily internationally, and to add the possibility of a curriculum with electives and student- chosen courses.
Problems In connection with a lack of school facilities or a lack of teachers, some primary and secondary schools run three, instead of two sessions, so one group of students attends from 8 to 1pm, a second from 1pm to 6. This results in overworked teachers, students who are kept up late, and overused facilities.secondary schools