Criminal investigation in the Russian Federation Stepnyak Alina. - презентация
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Criminal investigation in the Russian Federation Stepnyak Alina
Vocabulary Inasmuch - Поскольку To be engaged – Быть занятым Check out - проверять Submit – отправить Inquest - расследование Preliminary - предварительный Suspects - подозреваемые Determine the circumstances – определить обстоятельства To be answerable – быть подотчетным Simultaneously - одновременно Interrogate - допрашивать Forensic experts – суд.-мед. эксперты Sufficient evidence – достаточное доказательство Clues - улики
Criminal investigation is an applied science that involves the study of facts, used to identify, locate and prove the guilt of an accused criminal. Inasmuch as Russia follows the civil law system, all procedures of criminal prosecution are strictly regulated by laws set forth in the Code of Criminal Procedure.
Investigators and detectives Detectives are engaged in uncovering and preventing crimes, identifying and searching for criminals, looking for evidence in criminal cases, and searching for missing persons. Detectives use overt and covert/secret methods in their investigations, which are regulated by the Operational- Investigative Activities Law. Investigators check out reports of crimes, initiate criminal cases, conduct investigations, and submit the cases to the court. Investigators use overt methods only, which are regulated by the Code of Criminal Procedure.
The criminal investigation in serious cases is divided into two stages: an informal inquest performed by the police and a formal preliminary investigation usually conducted by a legally trained investigator who works for the Ministry of Internal Affairs but is subordinate to the prosecutor's office.
The police is the federal law-enforcement agency in Russia, operating under the Ministry of Internal Affairs. There is Criminal Police Service: Criminal Investigations Department
The Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation It is answerable to the President of Russia and has statutory responsibility for inspecting the police forces, combating police corruption and police misconduct and is responsible for conducting investigations into local authorities and federal governmental bodies.
First, a crime is uncovered and a record is made. After a crime is recorded, detectives or other officers search for suspects, question witnesses and victims, and determine the circumstances of the crime. Simultaneously, investigators conduct a preliminary investigation to uncover clues. They conduct an examination of the scene, interrogate victims and witnesses, and retain forensic experts. Then an investigator makes the decision to initiate a criminal case.
When a criminal case is initiated, the investigator becomes the principal figure in the investigation. He takes investigative action and gives orders to the detectives. If suspects are found, the investigator has to find evidence of guilt, or proof of innocence. If such evidence is not found, the investigator directs/orders the detectives to find it.
When the investigator determines that there is sufficient evidence to bring the accused before trial he prepares an accusatory pleading and forwards it to the procurator for review. The procurator may dismiss the case, amend the pleading or forward the case to the court for trial.