- October 25, 1990 adopted the Declaration on State Sovereignty. - December 16, 1991 Kazakhstan announced independence. - August 30, 1995 by a national referendum was adopted by the second Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Geographical position The Republic of Kazakhstan is located deep in the Eurasian continent (between 55 ° 26 'and 40 ° 56' north latitude and between 45 ° 27 'and 87 ° 18' E). The country stretches from west to east for three thousand miles from north to south km. On the territory of the republic are natural areas of the temperate zone - forest-steppe, semi-desert and desert. The area of the Kazakhstan - 2 million thousand square meters. km. It could accommodate a number of Western European countries such as France, Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Norway, and Finland combined. The density of the population people. at 1 m. km.
Neighborhood In the west, northwest and north Kazakhstan borders with Russia. in the south and south-west of the Central Asian republics - Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. in the south-east and east of the People's Republic of China. The total length of the border of Kazakhstan - 13,034 km. With Russia km, Uzbekistan km, with China km, with Kyrgyzstan - 1,053 km, Turkmenistan km Km sea border.
State emblem The State Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a picture of shanyrak (upper arch part of the yurt) on a blue background, from which all sides in the form of sun rays diverge uyki (supports) in the frame of the wings of mythical horses. At the bottom of the coat of arms - the inscription "Kazakhstan". Shanyrak image - the top part of the vaulted dome tent - in the state emblem of the Republic - a way of common house of all people living in Kazakhstan. The coat of arms depicts Tulpar - a mythical horse had concealed.. The wings symbolize the dream of building a strong and prosperous nation. In the state emblem of the Republic depicts two mythical horse, and how they would protect shanyrak on both sides.
National anthem Алтын күн аспаны, Алтын дән даласы, Ерліктің дастаны, Еліме қарашы ! Ежелден ер деген, Даңкымыз шықты ғой. Намысын бермеген, Қазағым мықты ғой ! Қайырмасы : Менің елім, менің елім, Гүлің болып егілемін, Жырың болып төгілемін, елім ! Туған жерім менің Қазақстаным ! Ұрпаққа жол ашқан, Кең байтақ жерім бар. Бірлігі жарасқан, Тәуелсіз елім бар. Қарсы алған уақытты, Мәңгілік досыңдай. Біздің ел бақытты, Біздің ел осындай ! Қайырмасы : Менің елім, менің елім, Гүлің болып егілемін, Жырың болып төгілемін, елім ! Туған жерім менің Қазақстаным !
The national flag Along with the coat of arms and anthem, is the official state symbol of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Along with the coat of arms and anthem, is the official state symbol of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The current flag adopted in The current flag adopted in The national flag of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a rectangular blue color with the image in the center of the sun with 32 rays, under them - a soaring eagle. The national flag of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a rectangular blue color with the image in the center of the sun with 32 rays, under them - a soaring eagle. At the flagpole - a vertical strip with a national ornament. At the flagpole - a vertical strip with a national ornament. Image of the sun with rays, eagle and vertical stripes with a national ornament - color gold. The ratio of the flag's width to its length is 1:2 Image of the sun with rays, eagle and vertical stripes with a national ornament - color gold. The ratio of the flag's width to its length is 1:2
The capital of Kazakhstan Astana (with penalty. Astana - "capital") - the capital of the Republic of Kazakhstan (since December 10, 1997). The city's population as of 1 August 2010 was 708,794 inhabitants. The city is the second in the country in terms of population after the Alma-Ata. The old name of the town - Akmola (from 1830 to 1961), Tzelinograd - from 1961 to 1992, Akmola - from 1992 to The city is located in northern Kazakhstan on the Ishim River, the site of its closest approach to the Nura River. The terrain of the city is a low floodplain terraces. Climate is continental. The hydrographic network of the city is represented by a single Yesil River and its minor tributaries drying up right, passing through the territory of the city - and Sarybulak Akbulak. Within a radius of km around Astana, there are many fresh and salt lakes. The area of the city - 71
languages According to preliminary data of the 2009 census the most common language spoken in Kazakhstan was the Russian language: 94.4% of the population indicated that they understand spoken Russian language, 84.8% of the population know how to read and write in Russian, only 3.4% of reading. At the same time, Kazakh understand spoken language 74% of the population can read and write in Kazakh 62% of the population, but only 2.9% of reading.
Religion Islam is the main religious institution of Kazakhstan. Kazakhs - Muslim Sunni Hanafi religious persuasion. The spread of Islam in the modern-day Kazakhstan has been a process that lasted for several centuries. Initially, Islam has penetrated into the south. By the end of the tenth century. Islam established itself among the settled population in the Seven Rivers and Syr Darya. Islam became the religion of the Turkish Empire Karakhanids that occurred in the Seven Rivers in the tenth century. The monument of the era - the composition of Balasagun Yusuf ( ) "Kudatgu Bilik," which was reflected Muslim ideology.
Traditions Kazakhstan Any culture starts with the home. Therefore, the main attraction of the Kazakh traditions and national culture of Kazakhstan is rightly considered a white tent. This type of home - one of the most unique artifacts and traditions of the Eurasian nomads of Kazakhstan. And look how amazing white tents, adorned with carpets inside and outside, on the green meadows filled jailow!
Yurt Today, yurt - a major tourist value of the Kazakh traditions and culture of Kazakhstan. Many companies offer not only admire its exterior and interior, but also to sit down at the table (tablecloth), which serves meals and beverages national cuisine, which is extremely diverse and interesting. The traditional dish that made entertain guests - beshbarmak is boiled chunks of horse meat or mutton with the dough. Also sure to enjoy traditional horse meat - shuzhuk, kazi, pressed-zhaya lamb - kuyrdak, manta rays and, of course, barbecue. And who has not heard about the amazing healing and even Kazakh drink ayran, katyk, irimshyk, kumyz. But at the end of the meal you will be served a delicious cream tea and soft baursaks.
National holidays January 1 - New Year March 8 - International Women's Day. March 21 - Nowruz May 1 - Kazakhstan celebration of unity of nations May 9 - Victory Day June 10 - Day of the Capital August 30 - Constitution Day October 25 - Day of the Republic December 16 - Independence Day
Attractions The Republic of Kazakhstan - is an open air museum. In this country there are beautiful natural attractions, such as a lake covered with legends Burabaj Kokshetausky in the area, alpine meadows Zailiiyskogo Alatau, the majestic scenery of the river canyon Charyn.
Astana Almaty is one of the most beautiful cities in Kazakhstan. Located in the mountains of Trans-Ili Alatau, it impresses with original architectural ensembles that combine elements of traditional style with the latest in building constructions. Not far from the city is a unique nature reserve covering an area of 90,000 hectares. Medeo and CHimbulak is a picturesque valley, situated 15 km from Almaty
Almaty Almaty today - is the most important public cultural and scientific center, where the main universities of the country, the Academy of Sciences, the National Theatre. Almaty is the sports capital of Kazakhstan, and this is where the 2011 Asian Winter Games will be held.
Baikonur Baikonur - star city and military training that began communicating with earthlings dark space full of suspense. It is from here, from this very unusual on the planet Kazakh settlement went to conquer the cosmos, the world's first cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, and this city has now become part of world history forever.
"Kazakhstan Switzerland» Burabai - "Kazakhstan Switzerland", "pearl of Kazakhstan" - this place can give tens of thousands of names, but none of them will be able to fully reflect the beauty and splendor of nature oasis, the main part of which is Lake elections. This is not just a resort, where the residents of Kazakhstan and foreign guests can relax and rejuvenate after a hard year - this is truly a paradise created by the all- powerful hand of God.
Currency The name "Tenge" is derived from the medieval Turkic silver coins "dengue" or "tanga", from which, in turn, took the name of Russian coin money and the word money.